Web Traffic Free Analysis Essay

The goal of my recent post on the Yahoo! Web Analytics blog was to pull us up 10,000 feet to do something we do less than 1% of the time in the web analytics world – look at the bigger business picture.

It was called: Secret To Winning With Web Analytics? Starting Right! (Yahoo! Analytics blog is dead, link now points to an alternative source.)

While that was a very strategic post, it got me thinking at a tactical level.

What if I was given the login and password to someone's web analytics data and asked to "find something interesting?" How would I start the process of web data analysis right? Even without any knowledge of the company's goals or help from a stubborn HiPPO or clients who just want data pukes? Can I add any business value?

A real challenge!

It turns out, astonishingly, that even with all those barriers (no objectives or goals or cooperation or business guidance), you can spend a couple hours and do decent enough analysis, sourced from your experience, to deliver some minor data-gasms of insights.

Not quite the real intense ones that you might experience if all the foreplay had been done correctly (see the YWA post above), but still never say no to even minor orgasms right?

Setting The Right Expectations

It is nearly impossible to find earth shattering insights that you can action from your web analytics data in just a couple hours. And yet finding some delightful starting points might be less hard than you might imagine.

Starting points to start valuable analysis from. (What data should I look at first?) Starting points for a customer centric strategy. (What are my customers telling me?) Starting points for gaps in your online marketing efforts. (Where am I wasting money?)

Secret To Winning Web Analytics: 10 Starting Points For A Fabulous Start!

This blog post is a starter guide that outlines the steps I personally undertake most commonly when handed the keys to the data for a website. 

I want to share where in your web analytics data you can find valuable starting points, even without any context about the site / business / priorities. Reports to look at, KPIs to evaluate, inferences to make. Here's what we are going to cover:

Step #1: Visit the website. Note objectives, customer experience, suckiness.
Step #2: How good is the acquisition strategy? Traffic Sources Report.
Step #3: How strongly do Visitors orbit the website? Visitor Loyalty & Recency.
Step #4: What can I find that is broken and quickly fixable? Top Landing Pages.
Step #5: What content makes us most money? $Index Value Metric.
Step #6: How Sophisticated Is Their Search Strategy? Keyword Tag Clouds.
Step #7: Are they making money or making noise? Goals & Goal Values.
Step #8: Can the Marketing Budget be optimized? Campaign Conversions/Outcomes.
Step #9: Are we helping the already convinced buyers? Funnel Visualization.
Step #10: What are the unknown unknowns I am blind to? Analytics Intelligence.

Ready to rock the world of Marketing and Analytics? Let's go!

Step #1: Visit the website. Note objectives, customer experience, suckiness.

My biggest beef with web analysts and consultants is how quick they are to jump into Google Analytics or Omniture or WebTrends. It's as if they have never seen a report with Visits & Conversions before. Jeez!

The very first thing I do, and I recommend you do, is visit the website whose data you are analyzing. See how it looks. Go to the product pages. Go to the donation pages. Go to the B2B dancing monkey video (what!). Go to the add to cart page. Go to the RSS / Email sign up page and sign up. Go read some customer reviews (if a ecommerce site) or visitor comments (if a blog). Go download the white papers. Go use site search.

Get a feel for the company's vibe. Get a feel for the information architecture and cross sells and font size and buttons and tab structure and user experience etc. What's hideous? What's awesome?

Bonus points for visiting one competitor's website. Do all of the above.

Take out a note pad and write down your thoughts. What did you like? What did you hate? What frustrated you? What was obviously broken? What's the site trying to do?

At the very minimum your notepad should contain answers to these two questions: What is the macro-conversion? What are two or three micro-conversions? Remember those terms apply to ecommerce and non-ecommerce websites.

The site owner / client did not help you, but you've not got super valuable context. You're ready for data!

Step #2: How good is the acquisition strategy? Traffic Sources Report.

This is the very first place I end up because the first thing I want to know is how savvy the company is about online marketing. All other site data comes second because if you stink at online marketing then there is not much of a victory to be had by torturing website data.

No company in the Milky Way has succeeded without having a balanced portfolio of acquisition channels (fancy word for source of traffic). How's yours?

What to look for:

I am really looking for a balanced portfolio of traffic sources. Search, Referring Sites, Direct, Campaigns. Which one is strong? Which one is missing?

Based on my own humble experience the site on the left is what approximates the kind of "best practice" (note the quotes) you are looking for.

Around 40% to 50% Search is normal. If the number is too big (site on the right) it indicates an overexposure to search rankings and algorithm changes (not good at all). If it is too low you are simply leaving money on the table. And of the search traffic, you want a big portion to be Organic so you are not just "renting" traffic or suck at SEO.

20% or so Direct Traffic. If the web analytics tool is implemented right these are all your existing customers or people from offline campaigns. You want a healthy amount of both. If direct traffic is low, I worry if you are any good at customer service / retention (the latter is so often just an afterthought).

20% to 30% Referring Sites. You can't just rely on search engines or spending money on campaigns. A healthy web strategy includes a robust amount of traffic from other sites that link to your products and services, and praise (or slam!) you, or promote you on Twitter and Facebook and forums and otherwise link to you. Free traffic (usually) and you do want that (for many reasons).

10% Campaigns. Google Analytics (sub optimally) calls this Other. It is email campaigns, display / banner ad campaigns, Facebook display campaigns, social media campaigns etc. You want at least 10% of the traffic to be the ones you invite to your site deliberately, after solid analysis and great targeting. Outside of Paid Search. It's a sign of a healthy business that has a diversified customer acquisition strategy.

Consider the above as broad guidelines, again based on my online marketing experience. YMMV, certainly for esoteric types of businesses.

What to do next:

I'll make note of where the company is overleveraged and make a note to dig deeper with the client / HiPPO. Expose the dangers to them, brainstorm how to diversify.

For each bucket I'll look at least the top ten rows. Additionally, for at least one of the four buckets I'll dig deeper by looking at the standard report for that segment to identify some strengths or weaknesses. Surprising keywords, missing sources of traffic, trends in campaign vs. direct visits etc.

At the end of this you'll understand how sophisticated the client is, where you'll attack acquisition first (if you get the time and money to do more analysis).

Step #3: How strongly do Visitors orbit the website? Visitor Loyalty & Recency.

I have a sense for the site and I have a sense for the client's acquisition savvy. Time to focus on the Visitors!!

Most people create sites just for themselves and with no obvious purpose in mind. Furthermore the content publishing schedules, perceptions of "engagement" are all out of whack.

So what I (and you, dear blog reader) want to do is get a sense for how strongly attached are the Visitors to the site. This is of course crucial for any type of content site, but you'll be surprised at how important it is even for an ecommerce website (retention, support, repeat purchases, yada yada yada).

The report I'll look at is the standard Visitor Loyalty report. It would show how many times in a given time period the same person (persistent cookie actually) visits the website. Or, how tightly the Visitor orbits the site!

All tools have this report, Here is how it looks like in Google Analytics:

What to look for:

For site number one it is clear there are a lot of one night stands (47%). But notice that bottom, an astonishing 40% of the people visit the site more than 9 times a month! You get a sense for content consumption patterns, you get a sense for your next task (segment the 40, learn what's working there, apply to the 47!), you get a sense for whether the site's delivering on its business objectives.

If the data looks more like site two, cry. Ok, most of the time cry. This site simply engages in one night stands, and while I can think of some sites where that can still be the basis of a long term sustainable business model. . .  I can't think of a lot of them.

Not a tight orbit. So what? Remember the notes you took in step one? What's the impact of the loyalty pattern on the objectives you noted? With some solid data you are ready to have a discussion with the client / site owner / HiPPO. Take a tissue.

While I love Loyalty the most, I also take a quick peek at Visitor Recency. This is specific to content sites (newspapers, yellow pages, hospital, "I am the next facebook-killer" sites, etc).

Visitor Recency measures the gap between two visits of the same visitor. Or, When was the last time you saw the same person (cookie really). Here's the report:

How amazing is it that 37% of the traffic on the site last visited less than 24 hours ago! Talk about orbit!

Segmenting this data is best (by content, source, campaign, outcomes, etc), but even a cursory review will help you understand how people behave.

What to do next:

I always review two more reports that give me a sense for content consumed. No, no, not the silly reports that show mostly useless metrics like Average Time on Site and Average Pages Per Visitors (averages stink!).

I am talking about Length of Visit and Depth of Visit:

With Loyalty and Recency we measured visitors visiting, but once they are here what are they doing? That's what you are trying to get a sense for with these two reports. [Remember visits with just one page view, bounces, will be in the first bucket 0-10. For why, see: How time on site & time on page are computed]

If you have some time segment out the bigger buckets (beyond 0-10) and analyze the data. If you don't have time just knowing Loyalty, Recency, Length, Depth tells you a lot about how tightly Visitors orbit this site, and understanding customers is precious.

Step #4: What can I find that is broken and quickly fixable? Top Landing Pages.

Understand site? Check! Understand traffic sources? Check! Visitors? Check!

Time to take off the gloves and some clothes and get dirty.

Companies spend lots of money acquiring traffic, often badly, so why not find top places where that money is being wasted and which home pages might possibly be stinky? Visitors refuse to give you a single click? That might be a useful signal. : )

In your web analytics tool this is a standard report. It shows bounce rates, sweetly indexed against site average, for the top entry points to the website:

What to look for:  

The red parts! See why I like "indexed against site average" feature? It is easy to know what smells bad.

Three landing pages (entry points to your site) are performing really well. Seven seem to be bouncing at a much higher rate than normal, some spectacularly so. At this point you don't know why.

When you see that a page has a high bounce rate it could mean one of two things:

1. Wrong people are coming to your site (highlighting problems with campaigns, SEO, etc) or

2. The page itself is poorly constructed (missing calls to action etc) or otherwise broken.

At this point you don't know which of the two (or both) is the problem. Since you don't have a lot of time pick two of the biggest losers above. Click on the arrow thingy next to their name in the above report and visit them. Sometimes the problem is obvious. Next click on the link itself in the above report and visit the page level report. There in the drop-down pick Entrance Sources and Entrance Keywords. That segmented view will quickly tell you which sources and / or keywords are contributing huge bounces.

Now, at least for two or three pages of the site you are analyzing you know that they stink and you have decent clues of what the cause(s) might be. Give yourself a pat on the back. Great job!

[An exception: Analyzing bounce rates for a blog, or "bloggish" site? Segment and look at landing pages for New Visitors; for all other sites the method is as above.]

What to do next:

In this case you are in a position to recommend specific fixes. You have looked at the pages and sources of traffic (proxy for customer intent). You can use a heuristic evaluation process to tell the site owner what fixes will help reduce bounce rates.

A clean and handy checklist is here: Qualitative Analytics: Heuristic Evaluations Rock!

I am telling you people are going to love you for being this awesome.

Step #5: What content makes us most money? $Index Value Metric.

Most effort on any given website is spent on content creation, and hence for step five I encourage you to stick with page reports, but flip the funnel from an "input metric," bounce rate, to an "output metric," $Index value.

For an ecommerce (with revenue) or a non-ecommerce website (where goal values have been defined) $ Index value essentially computes "how much revenue" has been earned by a page (more like contributed by a page). It is a great way to gauge the value of a page.

Go to any content report, in this case Content By Title and you'll see the last column:

What to look for:  

Quite simply the types of content that add most value to an ultimate outcome for your website. In the above screenshot it is pretty clear that even in the top ten the range of value added is from $8.79 to $0.10.

Would your boss / client not die and go to heaven if you told them exactly what types of content they should be writing / pimping more and what less? How about pages of which product / services generate most value?

Or my favorite report to look at: Content by Drilldown.

That report is particularly apt for sites that are organized in clean directory structures (like /products, /videos, /demos, /blog, /whatever else). Now you are able to discern which groups of content is most valuable to the company. Are videos really valuable? How about really heavy painful Silverlight demos? Wish lists work? The answer awaits!

If you don't have clean directory structure you can still use segmentation to group content and do the above.

What to do next:

This takes very little time. Use the Analytics Weighted Sort feature.

What I am doing above is answering this question: "Forgetting about top $index value pages and the bottom ones, which currently high value $index pages should I focus on to have the highest impact on my bottom-line?"

That is a very hard question to answer unless your web analytics tool has algorithmic intelligence built in. You click that check box and boom! There's the answer that will endear you to your boss / client for a long time. Hugs might even come into play.

Focus not just on what's causing good stuff today, focus on hidden areas where good stuff might happen in future.

Step #6: How Sophisticated Is Their Search Strategy? Keyword Tag Clouds.

Pages, and valuable bits of content, done. Time to refocus on high value acquisition.


It is really hard to get a "big impact" understanding of search strategy sophistication just from tables of top ten rows in Google Analytics or Omniture or CoreMetrics. Mostly because I don't want to look at the same lame obvious things.

So I like to yank the data out and create a tag cloud of all 40, 50, 100 thousand rows of data. Export as CSV. All Rows. Paste into www.wordle.net  Magic:

What to look for:  

[All data in examples below was taken from competitive intelligence tools as I don't have access to data for sites used here.]

A tag cloud very quickly shows the story in hundreds of thousands of keywords. In the case above, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, it becomes quickly apparent that the Mormon Church has done a near magnificent job with search.

The brand dominates (as it should), but what is truly impressive is how many other words are also prominent (the valuable non-brand ones, even the long tail ones). If you know even a little bit about the Church you'll also be impressed that this tag cloud is a validation that the words the LDS church would like to be associated with it are prominent, and ones it does not are not as prominent. An amazing job by them. Pretty easy to see the themes (music, scriptures, family, etc) that you can then take back to your client/boss and validate whether they line up with business goals.

You can easily create these views for Paid Search keywords or Organic and find even more valuable insights.

Tag clouds are great at understanding the big strategic picture and understanding the sophistication, or lack there of, for any brand. Compare the LDS church with. . . something completely different. . . Chase Bank:

For Chase, walk through the analysis I was doing above for the Church. What do you think?

In Wordle even after I remove the big words (representing massive traffic) from the cloud (say the words Chase and Bank) the story does not get much better.

How about this one:

See what I mean? Simple data presentation technique, some pretty big insights.

Tag clouds have limits. You don't know what the problem is. Is it people? Is it a lack of sophistication? Is it using too much cruise control? Is it bad SEO? Is it. . . you'll have to dig. But you have 1. A great understanding of the site's search data and 2. Something of incredible value to present to your boss / client.

What to do next:  

I am a big fan of internal site search analysis. Few other sources contain as much direct customer intent as this. Visitors to your site are directly telling you what they are looking for. The challenge, as always, is gathering up all that intent into something understandable.

How about downloading all that and creating a quickie tag cloud?

I can look over my pages viewed and time spent and Google'd keywords and all that. Or I could analyze the story above and at a glance understand what people are seeking.

Then, based on time available, we could analyze where people start searching, how many of them bounce off the internal search results page, what is the conversion rate / goal values for at least the top x of the above searches, etc etc.

I could even mine data above to see what other topics I could write more about (or in your case. . . what new products you could sell / stock / invent!).

Step #7: Are they making money or making noise? Goals & Goal Values.

With a tiny detour into search (always one of the biggest components of most people's acquisition strategies) we will go back to my first love: Outcomes!  Ok, ok, ok it's customers, but outcomes are close.

I can tell the sophistication of any business (and the HiPPOs) by what I see in this report, Goal Conversions & Goal Values:

What to look for:  

The first thing to check is if you see anything here.

If you don't see anything here, and the company has been around for some time, then you know you are going to struggle, in case this is a consulting gig, to make any decent money off them or, in case this is your first day in your job, you are going to not get a lot of love in this company as an Analyst. I am not saying quit, I am just saying dig in 'cos it is going to be a soul-searing struggle if this report is empty.

On the other hand if macro and micro conversions are present then get down on your knees and say a silent prayer because this is going to be fun.

Check if the actual goals & conversions are what you had noted in Step 1. If they are not then what are the visitors to the site doing of business value? Anything you noted in Step 1 that is not here (new goals to create?). What do the trends over the last 12 to 16 weeks suggest? What Goals are contributing the most amount of value?

At the end of this little exercise you should be able to confidently speak to your client / boss about how the website is meeting business objectives, and possibly where it is failing. If you did Steps 2 through 6 well then you might even have other actionable recommendations to make.

What to do next:  

If there were some goals you had identified, or your client/boss was expecting, then take a moment to configure those in the web analytics tool.

If they do not have any behavioral goals created (99% of the people don't), then create those, takes just a moment. Refer to your insights from Step 3 to set the threshold values.

If this was an ecommerce website I would typically create one segment as a little bonus for the client. Orders where the total value was 50% higher than the average order value. Essentially the "whales" – people who order way more than normal. My hope is to get particularly valuable insights about where these people come from (geographies, campaigns, keywords, etc), what they do on the site (content consumed etc), and what they buy (shopping cart / basket analysis etc).

You want a lot more of these people. It is good to understand them really well.

Step #8: Can the Marketing Budget be optimized? Campaign Conversions/Outcomes.

Remember the only three outcomes that are important in web analytics? More Revenue. Reduced Cost. Increased Customer Satisfaction.

In this step I focus on the second item, reducing cost. Perhaps it is surprising as this is our very first foray into the web analytics data, we have received limited love from the client / HiPPO, and we don't have all the company business specific knowledge that might be necessary. Yet we can help reduce cost of marketing / customer acquisition.

My favorite report? Goals / Conversions by Campaign:

What to look for:  

Campaigns as in Paid Search and Display and Email and Social Media and really anything of value you'd discovered in Step 2.

Start by looking at the horribly named "Other" report in Google Analytics (or perhaps the appropriately named Campaigns report in your web analytics tool). Initially allow yourself to be guided by that column at the end Per Visit Goal Value. It is a measure of efficiency. Notice above you go from $1.02 to $63, it is not hard to guess one campaign is working better than the other.

Then work backwards and see what conversion numbers look like. Then work further back and see which individual goals might be causing that high value to be created.

At the end of this exercise you should have some preliminary recommendations for at least one or two places money is potentially being wasted, or at least inefficiently spent. Killing opportunities (example: More better email campaign, less crappy Facebook pages!). You should also have some sense for where improvement opportunities might exist (I had a bunch above where PVGV was 40 cents).

What to do next:  

Pick one or two major campaign strategies the company is executing and dive deep into ecommerce analysis (if the client is ecommerce). The two screenshots of Paid Search and Yahoo! Display campaigns gives you just a small hint about how much opportunity exists below the surface to dig and understand the deltas between conversion rates and the average order values and the trends for those key metrics.

Far too often in the web analysis world our obsession is with analyzing behavior (visits and time on site, etc.) or with focusing on how to get more visits (spend more money!). If you want serious attention (and love) from your client / boss then you'll focus initially on cost reduction. You've seen that obsession of mine in almost every step here. I have learned this lesson from a lot of painful personal experience. I encourage you to embrace it as well.

Step #9: Are we helping the already convinced buyers? Funnel Visualization.

Ending on cost reduction was a good point. In this step we are going to do one awesomely sweet thing: focus on perhaps the fastest way to increase outcomes for the business!

The poor funnel report is so underappreciated. While unstructured path analysis is the biggest waste of time you could engage in, structured path analysis is literally manna from heaven.

You want people to go through a series of steps (one after another) to meet a goal (for them and you). Credit card applications and ecommerce orders and donations to non-profits and leads to potential email spammers (I kid, I kid, I kid the spammers!). 

The funnel report shows where in your three or four stepped process people leave.

What to look for:  

The red bars. The bigger red bars.

I wish I could write lots and lots about this, but that is all there is to it (if the funnel was correctly created).

Look for where the highest exits exit in the funnel. Go look at the page with your eyes, get your mom and your BFF to look at it as well, identify improvements (heuristic is ok), submit them to your client / boss for fixes. The utterly lame ones you can just kill, the moderately lame to "don't know if this might be an issue" things go into an A/B testing bucket.

Either way, here is the analogy. Someone walked into your supermarket. They filled their cart full of stuff. They line up at a cashier and take out their wallet. They notice the loooong line. They move the cart aside and leave. You don't want them to leave! It was so hard to get them to come and add to cart and line up! Fix anything that stands in the way of the open wallet and you.

What to do next:  

In many cases the above funnel process happens over multiple visits (sessions). In that case your normal Google Analytics (or Adobe Site Catalyst or WebTrends or NetInsight) funnel won't work. Well, it will "work" but show imprecise data.

Switch to something like PadiTrack. It measures pan-session funnel conversion performance. The same Visitor can enter and exit and finally convert across sessions and you'll be able to see that behavior.

Another compelling thing about PadiTrack is that you can view, praise the lord, segmented funnels! Search and Display and Email Visitors convert via different behavior, and finally you'll be able to see this.

PadiTrack is free, works using the free Google Analytics API, and works on historical data! Most web analytics tools, including paid tools, can't do that!

Step #10: What are the unknown unknowns I am blind to? Analytics Intelligence.

Without any help from my boss or marketer or mom I have got through nine steps of web data analysis and found a few concrete and meaningful bits of actionable insights.

But the danger of doing this with no tribal knowledge, or intelligent party at the other end, is that I might miss something I simply don't know because I don't know it.

The unknown unknowns!

So before I close any analysis for a website I go look at the Google Analytics Intelligence reports. There I can count on the fact that the unique intelligent algorithm in GA has done forecasting and applied control limits and statistical significance and much more math to help identify anomalies in the data. I see its soothing embrace:

What to look for:  

Initially I set the Alert Sensitivity to Low (multiple standard deviations away from the mean) and see what automatic alerts show up. These are big events, so most important. Then I move the slider slowly towards the right see what other alerts pop up (see the Traffic Source part in the above image).

I am looking for events and activity, on the site or caused by others externally, that I (and usually even the client / boss) would not be aware of. The unknown unknowns.

Your discoveries here are great way for you to check your own work in the above steps (perhaps some of what you thought did not make sense does make sense now). They are also a great way to impress your client / boss that you somehow, let's just say magically, discovered things that even they, the most data driven of data driven companies, might be unaware of in their own data.

What to do next:  

The hard part with Intelligence (custom or automatic alerts) is to isolate the root cause. Look at the newly released GA Intelligence Major Contributors section. That has the clues about root cause. Leverage the advanced segmentation feature to isolate the activity causing source / behavior / outcome and dig deeper.

[For more checkout the videos on Google Analytics Intelligence.]

And you are done! Does that not feel awesome? And more importantly, doable?

Summary: The Beginner's Guide / Tips / Best Practices For Web Data Analysis

In case you needed a handy checklist, here's what we've learned today:

    Step #1: Visit the website. Note objectives, customer experience, suckiness.

    Step #2: How good is the acquisition strategy? Traffic Sources Report.

    Step #3: How strongly do Visitors orbit the website? Visitor Loyalty & Recency.

    Step #4: What can I find that is broken and quickly fixable? Top Landing Pages.

    Step #5: What content makes us most money? $Index Value Metric.

    Step #6: How Sophisticated Is Their Search Strategy? Keyword Tag Clouds.

    Step #7: Are they making money or making noise? Goals & Goal Values.

    Step #8: Can the Marketing Budget be optimized? Campaign Conversions/Outcomes.

    Step #9: Are we helping the already convinced buyers? Funnel Visualization.

    Step #10: What are the unknown unknowns I am blind to? Analytics Intelligence.

The first time you go through the steps outlined in this guide it might take you more than 120 minutes. But I promise you that with time and experience you'll get better.

I wish just reading this blog post (it probably took you 120 minutes just to read it!) would be enough. It is not. You'll have to go practice it on many many clients. The more you do it the better you'll get as your sense of direction, data, discovery and deduction get better and better and better.

It is optimal to start any web analysis with a clearly defined web analytics measurement model. But if you don't have one then you no longer have an excuse not to provide something small that is incredible and of value from any web analytics tool you have access to, for any website in the world. And know that I am rooting for you!

Ok, your turn now.

When you are thrown into a website's data blind what are the first few things you do? What reports and metrics do you attack first? Over time have your discovered any strategies that work across multiple clients? Do you agree with the order of the steps above? Would you do something differently?

Please share your thoughts / critique / best practices / tips via comments.


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A Survey of Network Traffic Monitoring and Analysis Tools

Chakchai So-In,so-in@ieee.org


From hundreds to thousands of computers, hubs to switched networks, and Ethernet to either ATM or 10Gbps Ethernet, administrators need more sophisticated network traffic monitoring and analysis tools in order to deal with the increase. These tools are needed, not only to fix network problems on time, but also to prevent network failure, to detect inside and outside threats, and make good decisions for network planning. This paper surveys all possible network traffic monitoring and analysis tools in non-profit and commercial areas. The tools are categorized in three categories based on data acquisition methods: network traffic flow from NetFlow-like network devices and SNMP, and local traffic flow by packet sniffer. The popular tools for each category and their main features and operating system compatibilities are discussed. The feature comparisons on each category are also made.


Network Traffic Monitoring and Analysis Tools, Traffic Flow, NetFlow, sFLow, IPFIX, RMON, Flow-tools, cflowd, flowd, FlowScan, Autofocus, Fluxoscope, pmacct, InMon, snoop, tcpdump, Ethereal, Wireshark, Sniffer, MRTG, Cricket

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

Network monitoring and measurement have become more and more important in a modern complicated network. In the past, administrators might only monitor a few network devices or less than a hundred computers. The network bandwidth may be just 10 or 100 Mbps (Megabit per second); however, now administrators have to deal with not only higher speed wired network (more than 10 Gbps (Gigabit per sec) and ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) network) but also wireless networks. They need more sophisticated network traffic monitoring and analysis tools in order to maintain the network system stability and availability such as to fix network problems on time or to avoid network failure, to ensure the network security strength, and to make good decisions for network planning.

When a network failure occurs, monitoring agents have to detect, isolate, and correct malfunctions in the network and possibly recover the failure. Commonly, the agents should warn the administrators to fix the problems within a minute. With the stable network, the administrators' jobs remain to monitor constantly if there is a threat from either inside or outside network. Moreover, they have to regularly check the network performance if the network devices are overloaded. Before a failure due to the overload, information about network usage can be used to make a network plan for short-term and long-term future improvement

There are various kinds of tools dealing with the network monitoring and analysis, such as tools used by Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI), Sniffing, and Network flow monitoring and analysis. Given the data packet and network traffic flow information, administrators can understand network behavior, such as application and network usage, utilization of network resources, and network anomalies and security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we survey all possible network traffic monitoring and analysis tools in both public and commercial areas. The organization of this paper is as follows.

In section 2, we classified the tools in three categories based on how to retrieve the network flow information: network traffic flow information from network devices (NetFlow-like in section 2.1 and SNMP in section 2.2) and from local traffic network (by packet sniffer in section 2.3). The popular tools for each category with main features and operating system compatibilities are given. In section 3, the feature comparisons for each category are made based on [sFlow03]. Finally, summaries are drawn in section 4.

Since in fact, there are a huge number of monitoring and analysis tools available (in Appendix 7), we also include lists of all possible tools from [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. However, all tools in this paper focus only on a network traffic monitoring and analysis purpose. A reader can follow the link for further information or click on the references [1] to [9]. However, unlike the purpose of this paper (network traffic monitoring and analysis tools), these links contain other network management and monitoring tools. For example, in [1], the ESnet Network Monitoring Task Force (NMTF) has maintained the updated list of network monitoring tools both LAN and WAN.

The link gathers thousands of tools and classifies into eight main groups: Network Monitoring Platforms (NMP), Monitoring Tools Integrated with NMP, Commercial Monitoring Tools not Integrated with an NMP, Public Domain Network Monitoring Tools, Web Tools, Auxiliary Tools to Enable Monitoring, Analysis, Report Creation or Simulation. For commercial network monitoring tools, there are eight subgroups: Analyzer/Sniffer, Application/Services monitoring, Flow monitoring, FTP, Network security, SNMP tools, Topology, and VOIP (Voice Over IP). And fourteen subgroups are classified for public network monitoring tools: Application Monitoring, Finger Printing, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), Mapping, Monitoring Infrastructures, Packet Capture, Path Characterization, Ping, RRDtool (Round Robin Database Tool) , SNMP, Throughput tools, Traceroute.

In [2], the Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA) also provides tools and analyses promoting the engineering and maintenance of a robust, scalable global Internet infrastructure. Network traffic monitoring software and text-based packet monitoring software are listed in [3] with some comments. In [4], the Swiss Education and Research Network makes a list of Flow-Based Accounting Software and brief descriptions for each tool. Some of the network monitoring and management are described briefly in [5]. In category "Network Traffic Monitoring", [6] lists the tools and gives critic for popular tools.

In [7], the Advanced Laboratory Workstation System lists the network monitoring software. The link is no longer maintained, but it is still there. Comlab provides some tools for modeling the user-traffic [8]. Hundreds of traffic monitoring and analysis tools (most of them are in the commercial area) are listed in [9] and [10]. www.tucows.com and www.download.com are well-known websites for downloading software in both commercial and non-profit areas. The tools by searching "network traffic monitoring" and "network traffic analyzer" are listed.

Back to Table of Contents

2. Traffic flow information

In this section, we consider the characteristics of traffic flow information. We group network traffic monitoring and analysis tools into three categories based on data acquisition technique: network traffic flow information from network devices like NetFlow, such as "Cisco NetFlow" and "sFlow", by SNMP such as "MRTG" and "Cricket", and by packet sniffer (Host-bed/Local traffic flow information) such as "snoop" and "tcpdump".

2.1 Network traffic flow information (by NetFlow-liked)

Cisco Systems is a well-known company for enterprise network devices. Cisco Systems was also the first company to develop and sell routers, so the idea of how to retrieve flow information was originally implemented by Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems provides an open but proprietary network protocol running on Cisco IOS (Internetworking Operating System), "Cisco NetFlow", in order to capture network traffic flow information and then send it back to the monitoring hosts. In this section, we describe network traffic flow information from NetFlow-like devices

The reason for "NetFlow-like" is that other networking companies, although they have their own techniques to either retrieve or export network flow information, their features are similar to "Cisco NetFlow". For example, Juniper Networks provides a similar feature for its routers called "cflowd", which is basically NetFlow version 5. Huawei Technology routers also support the same technology called "NetStream". [Wikipedia, NetFlow06]

2.1.1 Cisco NetFlow

"Cisco NetFlow" [Cisco, NetFlow06a]by Cisco Systems: Cisco routers with netflow switching feature can generate network flow records and be exported in either UDP (ser Datagram Protocol) or SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) packets to NetFlow collectors. NetFlow record is defined as version number (version 5 is commonly used and version 9 is an IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force standard for IPFIX (Internet Protocol Flow Information eXport)), sequence number, input and output interface SNMP indices, timestamps for the flow start and finish time, number of bytes and packets observed in the flow, IP (Internet Protocol) headers (Source and destination IP addresses, Source and destination port numbers, IP protocol, Type of Service value), the union of all TCP (Transport Control Protocol) flags observed over the life of the flow. [Wikipedia, NetFlow06]

The network flow information is very useful not only to understand network behavior, to detect security holes, but also to make good decisions on network planning. For example, source and destination addresses can be used to determine who is originating or receiving the traffic. The application utilizing or distributing can be made from port information. Class of service examines the traffic priority. The packets and byte count show the amount of traffic. Flow timestamps are used to calculate packets and bytes per second. Next hop IP address with BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) shows routing information. Network prefixes can be calculated from subnet mask of source and destination address. The union of TCP flags can implicitly explain a TCP handshake process. [Cisco, NetFlow06b]

Some routers also support more flow information such as source and destination Autonomous System (AS) number. NetFlow version 9 includes all of these fields and optionally includes extra information, such as Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) labels and IP version 6 addresses and port numbers. NetFlow version 9 was also chosen to be a common, universal standard of export for IP flow information from network devices by IPFIX (IP Flow Information Export) IETF working group. [IETF charters (ipfix)06]

NetFlow record is cached when traffic is first passed by Cisco router and sent to the NetFlow collector on the following conditions: first, for TCP traffic, when the TCP connection is terminated (after a RST or FIN is seen), second when the flow is inactive in a certain time (default is 15 seconds), third when the active flow is long lived (30 minutes by default), and finally when the flow table is full. However, these timers can be reconfigured. Moreover, general NetFlow collectors provide a traffic flow aggregation feature. For example, a long-lived FTP download may be broken into multiple flows and the NetFlow collector can combine these flows showing a total FTP traffic.

Once the flow records are exported, the router does not store those flows due to performance reason. Thus, with UDP transmission, there is no retransmission mechanism because of the lost of flow packets. Since collecting NetFlow data can be very expensive in terms of router's CPU consumption, the huge number of flow data across the network, and the data storage is required; the NetFlow collector is placed just one hop from the router or directly connected. Additionally, "Sampled NetFlow" feature is an option in order for router to look at the packet in every nth packet or randomly selecting interval.

Aside from the recommendations above, to place the NetFlow collector, the location also depends on the location of reporting solution and the topology of the network, but it is placed at the central site, since the implementation of NetFlow from the remote branch is optimal. Normally the switching traffic is consumed about 1 to 5% in order to export the flow records to the collectors. [Cisco, NetFlow06b] Examples of network traffic flow collectors (Flow-tools, cflowd, and flowd)

In this section, the popular tools for NetFlow collectors are described: "Flow-tools", "cflowd", and "flowd". Although "cflowd" is no longer maintained, the flow-collecting concept is used for other flow collectors. The concepts and features for flow collectors are similar; just collect NetFlow information from Cisco routers. Thus, most NetFlow collectors are offered for free charge (NetFlow collector provided by Cisco Systems is just for small fees, but high cost for Cisco NetFlow Analyzer). In table 2.2, a list of other free NetFlow collectors was drawn with main features, operating system compatibility, and input/ output. Most NetFlow collectors include simple flow analyzer such as top ten-protocol summarization and one line statistic summary.

Actually, "Flow-tools" are a combination of network traffic flow collector and flow analyzer. The flow collector can support single, distributed, and multiple servers for NetFlow versions 1, 5, 6, and 14 defined as version 8 subversions. Perl and Python are used as the programming interface. "flow-capture" module is used to collect the NetFlow record (only UDP not SCTP format) from the network devices. This module stores all flows in compress raw format. Then, either "flow-print" or "flow-cat" decodes the compress files for analyzer purpose. Other modules (including in Flow-tools package) with description are shown in table 2.1 [S. Romig et all., 2000]

Table 2.1: Flow-tools package [S. Romig et all., 2000]
Flow-tools modules
flow-catConcatenate flow files. Typically, flow files will contain a small window of 5 or 15 minutes of exports. "flow-cat" can be used to append files for generating reports that span longer periods.
flow-fanoutReplicate NetFlow datagrams to unicast or multicast destinations. "flow-fanout" is used to facilitate multiple collectors attached to a single router.
flow-reportGenerate reports for NetFlow data sets. Reports include source/destination IP pairs, source/destination AS number, and top talkers. Over 50 reports are currently supported.
flow-tagTag flows based on IP address or AS number. "flow-tag" is used to group flows by customer network. The tags can later be used with "flow-fanout" or "flow-report" to generate customer based traffic reports.
flow-filterFilter flows based on any of the export fields. "flow-filter" is used in-line with other programs to generate reports based on flows matching filter expressions.
flow-importImport data from ASCII or "cflowd" format.
flow-exportExport data to ASCII or "cflowd" format.
flow-sendSend data over the network using the NetFlow protocol.
flow-receiveReceive exports using the NetFlow protocol without storing to disk like flow-capture.
flow-genGenerate test data
flow-dscanSimple tool for detecting some types of network scanning and Denial of Service attacks (DoS).
flow-mergeMerge flow files in chronological order.
flow-xlatePerform translations on some flow fields
flow-expireExpired flows using the same policy of "flow-capture".
flow-headerDisplay meta information in flow file
flow-splitSplit flow files into smaller files based on size, time, or tags.

"cflowd" [cflowd98] is a flow analysis tool for analyzing NetFlow data. The "cflowd" package includes flow collections, storage, and basic analysis modules for "cflowd" and "arts++" libraries. "cflowd" package contains four modules. "cflowmux" module functions as the flow collector to collect UDP data flow from Cisco routers and saves them to shared memory buffers. Then, "cflowd" watches the shared memory and reads a packet buffer when available. "cflowd" uses "CflowRawFlow" class to covert the flow-export packets to "CflowdRawFlow" object, and use "CflowdRawFlow" to generate the tables. To generate time series data for the tabular information (AS matrix, net matrix, protocol table and port matrix, "cfdcollect" retrieves the data from "cflowd" at regular intervals. "cfdcollect" also uses "CflowdServer" class as an interface and writes data in ARTS file.

Figure 2.1: "cflowd" data flow [cflowd98]

"flowd" [flowd06] is another NetFlow collector. It supports NetFlow protocol version 1, 5, 7, and 9 in both IPv4 and IPv6 (multicast groups for flow export are also supported). "flowd" is considered secure since "privilege separated" is used to separate the parent process and unprivileged child process. "flowd" stores the data in a compact binary format. The main feature is "flowd" provides the user-friendly interface by Perl and Python.

Table 2.2: Free NetFlow collector tools
Software/ OS
Functions/ Features
flowScriptNetFlow/TextScript for NetFlow-generating software traffic probe
FlowdUNIX-liked, softflowd and pfflowd for OpenBSD.NetFlow/ Compact binary formatSimple, fast, and secure NetFlow collector
flowdBSD-liked, OpenBSD, LinuxNetFlow/ Text or SQLFlow collector (IPv4 and IPv6 transports) Support NetFlow V9
NFDUMPBSD-likedNetFlow/ TextA set of tools to capture/record, dump, filter, and replay NetFlow (v5/v7/9) data
NEyeLinux, Solaris, AIX, Irix, HP/UX, Mac OS X, Digital Unix, Ultrix, NextstepNetFlow v5/ ASCII, MySQL, SQLiteSupport various operating systems, make full use of POSIX threads
pcNetFlowLinux, FreeBSDNetFlow v5/ TextA software running on normal PC hosts
NDSAD Traffic CollectorWindows, POSIX, Unix-likedNetFlow/ TextTranslating captured traffic data into the NetFlow v.5 format.
NFDCN/ANetFlow/ PostgreSQLNetFlow Datagram Collector
New NetFlow CollectorBSD-liked, LinuxNetFlow v5, v7/ Database or TextNew NetFlow collector is a POSIX compliant portable collector for
pfflowdOpenBSDNetFlow/ TextCisco NetFlow datagram export for OpenBSD.
RENETCOLLinuxNetFlow v5/ASCII and binary filesNetFlow collector with support for NetFlow v9, IPv6, Multicast, and MPLS. Examples of network traffic flow monitoring and analysis tools (FlowScan, Autofocus, and Fluxoscope)

In this section, the popular tools for network traffic flow monitoring and analysis are described. The tools generate the graph or function as the visualization tools, which provide the summarization and classification of network flow information. These tools generally use captured flow information from other flow collectors such as "FlowScan" (uses data from "cflowd") and "PRTG" (supports all three data acquisition methods). In table 2.3, it also shows other free NetFlow-like grapher tools with the main features, operating system compatibility, and input/ output. "AutoFocus" and "Fluxoscope" are other two popular tools for network traffic flow monitoring and analysis.

We also listed other free network traffic flow monitoring and analysis tools in table 2.4 with their main features, operating system compatibility, input AND output, and primary functionalities for flow collector. Some tools also include the report generator features. Since there are a lot of free NetFlow monitoring and analysis tools, a list of available tools with the brief definition and the software link information are made in Appendix 7 (Table 7.1).

For commercial network traffic flow monitoring and analysis tools, table 2.5 shows commercial NetFlow reporting products by [Cisco, NetFlow06a]. Most products are used primarily for traffic and security analysis. All companies' targets are enterprise users. "AdventNet" and "Crannog Software" are considered to be in lower price range and both of them support only Windows. Only "Cisco NetFlow Collector" and "HP" support Solaris and Linux. The rest of them support either Linux or Windows except "Arbor Networks" for BSD only and "Micromuse" for Solaris. One more observation is that if the operating system is Solaris, only NetFlow data can be used. Other than these, the list of other commercial tools is made with the software link information in Appendix 7 (Table 7.2).

"FlowScan" [D. Plonka, 2000] is visualization tool used to generate a report in HTML format. "FlowScan" is a pack of Perl script modules, which bind a flow collection engine, high performance database, and visualization tool together. Instead of cflowd's "arts++" data aggregation features, "FlowScan" uses RRDtool to store numerical time-series data. RRDtool and RRGrapher modules are used to create an output such as graphs of IP traffic in GIF (Graphic Interchange Format) or PNG (Portable Network Graphics) format.

"FlowScan" uses "cflowd" as a flow collector and "cflowd" components used by "FlowScan" are the "cflowdmux" and "cflowd" programs. "cflowdmux" receives UDP NetFlow data from routers and passes them to "cflowd", which writes them to storage disks. Another module called "flowscan" (not "FlowScan") does the central processing in the system such as loading and executing report modules. The report module is a Perl module derived from the "FlowScan" class (FlowScan.pm). Another module called "flowdumper" is the utility module used to examine the raw flows manually.

"FlowScan" provides an extra feature dealing with buffer management due to the very high traffic and flood-based DOS attack. It also supports a stateful inspection by the use of heuristics. By analyzing flow information, "FlowScan" can track the state of application session or series of sessions. As a result, "FlowScan" can classify the stateful traffic such as Napster application or passive mode of FTP file transfers. [D. Plonka, 2000]

Figure 2.2: Screen snapshot of FlowScan [D. Plonka, 2000]

Next, Paessler Router Traffic Grapher (PRTG) [PRTG06] is a very powerful and low cost tool (starting from $100) for monitoring and bandwidth use for Windows. PRTG provides both free (with three sensors and academic and personal use) and commercial versions. This tool supports all three data acquisition methods: NetFlow-like, SNMP (Not only the bandwidth usage but also CPU usage, disk usage, and temperatures can be monitored.) and packet sniffer (running on promiscuous mode). The administrators can use either Window interface or web interface to configure and monitor the sensors and create reports.

Figure 2.3: Screen snapshot of PRTG [PRTG06]

"AutoFocus" is a traffic analysis and visualization tool. "AutoFocus" analyzes the traffic pattern and provides both textual reports (measured in bytes, packets and flows) and time series plots. The extra feature is that it generates the report with traffic cluster aggregation of the mix of traffic. The traffic mix is defined using the source and destination IP address, source and destination ports and protocol field. RRDtool is used to produce time series plots of the traffic mix. "AutoFocus" can produce reports and plots for various time periods ranging from weeks to half hour intervals. It also supports the user filter. "AutoFocus" supports two types of input: packet header traces and NetFlow data. The flow sampled with both inputs can be applied, but "AutoFocus" only compensates for the sampling in the reports that measure the traffic in bytes and packets, and not for the traffic in flows. [Cristian Estan et all., 2003]

Figure 2.4: Screen snapshot of Autofocus [http://ial.ucsd.edu/AutoFocus/]

"Fluxoscope" (formerly NetFlow listener) is an aggregation and analysis software written in Common Lisp. The main feature provides not only the various types of graphical and textual reports, an interactive Web-based tool, but also the NetFlow accounting processor with an SNMP agent, which can be used to access statistics on the processing of accounting data. It can support multiple NetFlow accounting streams.

A "Listener" module in "Fluxoscope" is used to collect accounting data sent. It provides an aggregation functions to all flows and splits them into time slices, and finally periodically writes data out to files. Like general NetFlow collector, "listener" is better placed near the routers to reduce load and to avoid the data loss. "Data collection and maintenance module" periodically accesses the files that are generated by the "Listener". It also makes a copy of them to the central storage. It supports the data compression and the data over the long period can be summed up. Finally, "Data analysis module" analyzes the data from the central storage in order to generate several kinds of reports, such as tabular data and graphical representations for network monitoring and long-term traffic analysis purpose. [S. Leinen, 2000]

Figure 2.5:Screen snapshot of Fluxoscope [S. Leinen, 2000]

Table 2.3: Free NetFlow grapher tools
Software/ OS
Functions/ Features
F.L.A.V.I.O.UNIX-likedWeb/ Perl, MySQLA data grapher for NetFlow data export compatible devices
Flow ViewerN/AWeb/ Perl, GD, RRDToolWeb-interface to Flow-tools
JKFlow (XML based)Linux/ SolarisWeb/ RRDTool WAN-traffic monitoring
NfSenBSD-likedWeb/ PHP, Perl, RRDToola graphical web based front end for the nfdump tools
nfstatUNIX-likedWeb/ PerlWeekly human-readable reports from raw NetFlow v5 data
NtopUNIX-liked, Linux, BSD-liked, Solaris, MacOS, WindowsWebNetwork traffic probe that shows the network usage, similar to what the popular top Unix command. Support NetFlow V9
ng_NetFlowApple Mac OS X, Linux, BSD-liked, UNIX-likedN/AA netgraph kernel module.
StagerUnix-likedWeb/ PostgreSQLA system for aggregation and presentation of network statistics from the Flow-tools package.

Table 2.4: Free NetFlow monitoring and analysis tools
Hardware(H)/ Software(S)
Monitor(M)/ Capture(C)/ Analysis(A)
Real Time(R)/ Offline(O)
Argus(S) Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, MAC, OpenBSD, NetBSDpacket capture files, data from a live interfaceText (log files)M, C, A: report/ auditR, O
Autofocus(Cluster)(S) N/Apacket header traces, NetFlowGUI (Web*) visualizationAO
AflowN/ANetFlow GUI (Web*) M, C, AR, O
AsItHappens(S) JavaSNMP and NetFlowGUIM, CR
CAIDA cflowd(S) Unix-liked, FreeBSDflow-export data from one or more Cisco routersTabular summariesM,C, AR
CoMo(S) Linux, FreeBSDNetFlow and other traffic capture sourcesN/AM, CR
CUFlow(S) Unix-liked, DebianNetFlowTextM, CR
CANINE(S) Linux, MAC, Solaris, Windows NetFlowGUIM, CR
CoralReef(optical net)(S) Unix-liked, Linux, FreeBSDATM Traffic liveGUIM, CO
Cricket(S) BSD-liked, Linux, FreeBSD, HP-UXSNMPGUI (Web*)A (time-series data)O
dbFlowc(S) BSD-liked, Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, Unix-liked NetFlowTextC (collect flow and store it)R
EHNT(S) BSD-liked, Linux, FreeBSD, UNIX-likedNetFlowTextMR
FlowScan(S) UNIX-likedcflowd-format rawGUI (Web*)A: reportO
Flow-tools (like cflowd)(S)LinuxNetFlowTextM, C, A: report (Scalable)R, O
Fluxoscope(S) N/ANetFlowGUI, 3D visualizationM, C, AR, O
Flamingo(S) N/ANetFlowGUI, 3D visualizationM, C, AR, O
Flowc(S) Linux, FreeBSDNetFlowSQL, GUI (Web)M, C, A: reportR, O
Java NetFlow Collect-Analyzer(S) JavaNetFlow or nProbe dataRaw, JDBCM, C, AR, O
JNFA(S) JavaNetFlowSQLM, C, AR, O
NetFlow Monitor(S) LinuxNetFlowGUI (Web)M, C, AR, O
NeTraMet (link is no longer valid(S) Unix-liked, DOSNetFlow, SNMPGUIM, C, AR, O
Netpy (S) LinuxNetFlowGUI (python)M, C, AR, O
*based on RRDtool files

Table 2.5: Commercial NetFlow Reporting Products [Cisco, NetFlow06b]
Product Name
Primary Use
Primary User
Operating System
Starting Price Range
Cisco NetFlow CollectorTraffic AnalysisEnterprise, Service ProviderLinux, SolarisMedium
Cisco CS-MarsSecurity MonitoringEnterprise, SMBLinuxMedium
AdventNetTraffic AnalysisEnterprise, SMBWindowsLow
ApoapsisTraffic AnalysisEnterpriseLinuxMedium
Arbor NetworksSecurity/Traffic AnalysisEnterprise, Service ProviderBSDHigh
CaligareTraffic/Security AnalysisEnterprise, Service ProviderLinuxMedium
Crannog SoftwareTraffic AnalysisEnterprise, SMBWindowsLow
*CA SoftwareTraffic AnalysisEnterprise, Service ProviderWindowsHigh
*Evident SoftwareTraffic Analysis, BillingEnterpriseLinuxHigh
*HPTraffic AnalysisEnterprise, Service ProviderLinux, SolarisHigh
IBM AuroraTraffic Analysis/SecurityEnterprise, Service ProviderLinuxMedium
InfoVista (Crannog)Traffic AnalysisEnterprise, Service ProviderWindowsHigh
IsarNetTraffic AnalysisEnterprise, Service ProviderLinuxMedium
*MicromuseTraffic AnalysisEnterprise, Service ProviderSolarisHigh
NetQoSTraffic/Security AnalysisEnterpriseWindowsHigh
Valencia SystemsTraffic AnalysisEnterpriseWindowsHigh
Wired CityTraffic AnalysisEnterpriseWindowsHigh
* Use Cisco NetFlow Collector

2.1.2 sFlow (pmacct and InMon Traffic Sentinel)

"sFlow" [sFlow03]originally developed by InMon Inc. is an industrial standard mechanism (defined in RFC 3176) to capture traffic from switches and routers. "sFlow" sampling technology was introduced, so the application can monitor traffic flow level at wire speed on all interfaces simultaneously: statistical packet-based sampling of switched or routed packets, and time-based sampling of interface counters. [Wikipedia, sFlow06]

"sFlow" agent running at device combines the interface counter and flow sample into "sFlow" datagram (UDP, default port is 6343) and sent to "sFlow" collectors. The UDP datagram contains the "sFlow" information as version, its originating agent's IP address, sequence number, and how many samples it contains. Unlike Cisco NetFlow originally developed by IP routing accelerate technique which can provides only basic flow information, "sFlow" offers greater scalability and reporting detail in layer 2 to layer 7 information on network traffic.

Although "sFlow" seems to be an industrial standard, only some routers' companies support such as Alcatel, Allied Telesis, Extreme Networks, Foundry Networks, Hewlett-Packard (HP), Hitachi and NEC. Thus, from our extensive survey, there are not a lot of monitoring and analysis tools available. For example, "Net::sFlow" [Net::sFlow06] is a Perl module to decode "sFlow" datagrams. "sFlow Toolkit" [sFlow Toolkit06] is a collection of network monitoring and analysis tools which bundles the converter tool from "sFlow" packets to NetFlow packets. However, a few commercial tools that support "sFlow" are also NetFlow supported. In addition, the document and technical paper are not available.

"pmacct" [pmacct06] is only free "sFlow" collector we found, but it also supports NetFlow. "pmacct" runs on Linux, BSD-liked, Solaris and embedded systems. It either collects data through NetFlow v1/v5/v7/v8/v9 or "sFlow" v2/v4/v5 and stores the packets to MySQL, PostgreSQL and SQLite. "pmacct" can easily feed data into external tools including RRDtool, GNUPlot, Net-SNMP, MRTG and Cacti. Only HP, Force Network and Foundry Network are tested for "sFlow" data.

For commercial products, we found three popular products available which all support both NetFlow and "sFlow" packets. First, "StealthWatch" by Lancope Inc [Lancope06]is a flow collector for high-speed network. "StealthWatch" can support up to 40,000 flows per second and 1,000 router devices. Second, "Infosim StableNet" [Infosim StableNet06]offers a whole solution for monitoring and reporting on the systems, networks and applications. There is not much detail about the traffic flow information; however, "Inforsim StableNet" technology supports NetFlow, cFlow, sFlow, and Netstream. Finally, "InMon Traffic Sentinel" [InMon Traffic Sentinel06] is a commercial web-based application running on RedHat ES/AS or Fedora that provides real-time and historical analysis of flow information. This tool also supports signature-based intrusion detection and automated NBAD (Network Behavior Anomaly Detection).

2.2 Network traffic flow information (by SNMP) (MRTG and Cricket)

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is defined by IETF. SNMP is an application layer protocol used to monitor network-attached devices. SNMP works as the manager/agent model. The manager and agent use a Management Information Base (MIB) and a relatively small set of commands to exchange information. The MIB is organized in a tree structure with individual variables, represented as leaves on the branches. A long numeric tag or object identifier (OID) is used to distinguish each variable uniquely in the MIB and in SNMP messages.

SNMP uses five basic messages (GET, GET-NEXT, GET-RESPONSE, SET, and TRAP) to communicate between the manager and the agent. The GET and GET-NEXT messages allow the manager to request information for a specific variable. The agent, upon receiving a GET or GET-NEXT message, will issue a GET-RESPONSE message to the manager with either the information requested or an error indication as to why the request cannot be processed. A SET message allows the manager to reconfigure to the value of a specific variable. The agent will acknowledge with a GET-RESPONSE message to indicate the change or provide an error message to why the change cannot be made. The TRAP message allows the agent to inform the manager of an important event. [DPS Telecom06]

Each SNMP element manages specific objects with each object. Each object / characteristic has a unique object identifier (OID). The OIDs are the combination of numbers separated by decimal points such as "". The OIDs form a tree structure. The MIB associates each OID with a readable label such as "dpsRTUAState" and various other parameters related to the object. The MIB then serves as a data dictionary used to assemble and interpret SNMP messages. [DPS Telecom06]

SNMP GET message allows the Network Monitor Engine to request information about a specific variable remotely. Upon receiving a GET message, the agent will issue a GET-RESPONSE message to the Network Monitor Engine with either the information requested or an error indication as to why the request cannot be processed. "snmpget" [snmpget05] by Net-SNMP implementation is a snmp get command-line tool for Unix-liked operating systems and Windows. It requests the network entity information and displays the output in text format. "SNMPGet" [SNMPGet03] is another free snmpget tool but provide the user-friendly interface.

As we described above, the network information can be retrieved from the networking device by SNMP, like the network traffic flow information. However, unlike NetFlow-like devices, these devices cannot store all flow and packet information. The network traffic flow information in this category are link utilization, interface bandwidth, and some other information if the device provides. Though the information is just the interface bandwidth, this is very important information since the administrators can monitor the availability of the link, the link usage, and the network usage behavior.

"MRTG" (Multi Router Traffic Grapher) is a visualization tool for SNMP data quires. To generate the output via SNMP agent, input and output object identifiers are queried regularly (the default is 5 minutes). Then, a HTML is created as the output. All figures are in GIF or PNG format. "MRTG" version 3 logs data in RRD (Round Robin Database) in order to limit the amount of log size and also increase the information retrieval efficiency (binary logging). Because of the use of RRD and core C program instead of just Perl in previous version, the limitation of "MRTG" version 3 is about the SNMP performance and so far, it supports up to 600 router ports per 5 minutes. [Tobias Oetiker, 1998]

Figure 2.6: Screen snapshot from MRTG

"Cricket" [Cricket06] is a free high performance system for monitoring trends in time-series data written in Perl. "Cricket" has two components, a collector and a grapher. Like "MRTG", "Cricket" collector (snmpget-liked) runs from "cron" (daemon to execute scheduled commands) and stores data into a datastructure RRD. A web-based interface can be used to view graphs of the data. "Cricket" is developed on Solaris under Apache but it works on Linux, HP-UX, variants of BSD, and Windows. "Interface Traffic Indicator" (Inftraf) by Carsten Schmidt [Inftraf 05]is another free network traffic monitoring tool running over SNMP for Windows. "Inftraf" is a tool that requests in and out data (MIB2) from SNMP-capable network interfaces and graph out the incoming and outgoing traffic on an interface in bits per second/ bytes per second or utilization.

2.3 Local traffic flow information (by packet sniffer)

Aside from network flow information from network devices, in this section the local traffic or host-bed traffic flow information is described. Instead of requesting network devices to send the flow information to the monitoring host, we defined the host-bed flow information as the flow in local network, which packet sniffer locally collects the flow information. Originally, "sniffer" is a registered trademarks of Network Associates, Inc. used on their network analyzing products, but today "sniffer" is a well-known name for network monitor and analyzer.

A "sniffer" can be either hardware or software, which mainly intercept and collect the local traffic. After recording the traffic, the "sniffer" provides the function to decode and simply analyze the content of the packets in human readable. The traffic flow information in this category is local, that is, "sniffer" can capture the packet only from the network that "sniffer" attaches to. Therefore, in order to capture more traffic from several networks, some techniques have to be enabled or the network infrastructure might be changed. For example, due to the widespread of installing switch rather than hub, a port mirroring technique has to be enabled in order to make switches forward all the data packets to the "sniffer". Another technique is to place "sniffer" in a core network where all packets the administrator concerns are passed.

Consider the nature of broadcasting network, a network adapter discards a packet, which the destination address does not belong to. However, to capture all traffic, the network adapter will be placed in to promiscuous mode. Though having "sniffer" installed can benefit a lot in term of network troubleshooting, network intrusion detection, network usage, and so on, the limitation of "sniffer" is that it cannot read the encrypted packets. Big issue is about the privacy reason since the administrator can see the content of the packet.

Next, we briefly described most popular "sniffer" tools in public and commercial sides. There are a lot of free packet sniffer tools as we made a list in table 7.2; however, what makes the main different from the commercial is that most of the commercial sniffer tools provide a sophisticated analysis tools, user-friendly interface, and wide variety of media such as 8802.11a/b, 802.11g, Gigabit Ethernet, and ATM.

2.3.1 Software sniffer (snoop, tcpdump, Wireshark)

In most operating system, the bundled packet sniffer is provided; however, either software (e.g. Microsoft Windows) or hard ware (HP-UX and Solaris) has to be purchased. "snoop" [snoop05] is a simple packet capture tool which is bundled on Solaris operating system. "snoop" is a command line interface and display the packet in text (a summary and multi-line format). The drawback of "snoop" is that it does not reassemble IP fragments. "nettl/ netfmt"[nettl/ netfmt00] is the packet sniffer provided by HP-UX but still in command line. "Microsoft Network Monitor" [MNN06] is the packet sniffer which is bundled with Microsoft Windows. This "sniffer" must be run on Windows NT Server 4.0 or Windows Server 2003, or have Microsoft Systems Management Server installed. This "sniffer" provides the simple graphic user interface. All "sniffer" provided for each operating system can run either in real-time and in batch modes (Logging is saved to a file for further analysis). A simple analyzer is also included for filtering and protocol searching.

"tcpdump" [tcpdump06] is a packet sniffer mainly bundled in Linux operating systems, but also has a lot of distribution with other operating systems, such as Solaris, BSD, Mac OS X, HP-UX and AIX. "WinDump" [WinDump06] can be used in Windows. Like "snoop" and "netttl/netfmt", "tcpdump" runs on standard command line and output to common text file for further analysis. "tcpdump" uses a standard libpcap library as an application programming interface to capture the packets in user level (WinPcap [WinPcap06] for Win32 platform). Although all packet sniffer can examine the traffic in real-time, the processing overhead is also higher, so it might cause the packet drop. As a result, it is recommended to output raw packets and do some analysis later. However, the problem is the incompatible of the trace format such as "Microsoft Network Monitor" cannot read the trace file from "tcpdump".

Due to the performance concern, "tcpdump" functions only as the traffic-capturing tool, "tcpdump" just captures the packets and saves them in a raw file. There are not so many analysis functions. However, due to the peculiarity of "tcpdump", there are many analysis tools built for it. For example, "tcpdump2ascii" [tcpdump2ascii04] is a Perl script used to convert the output from "tcpdump" raw file to ASCII format. "tcpshow" [tcpshow05] is also a utility to print raw "tcpdump" output file in human readable. "tcptrace" [tcptrace04]is a free powerful analysis tool for "tcpdump". It can produce different types of output such as elapsed time; bytes and segments sent and received retransmissions, round trip times, window advertisements, and throughput. Shawn Osterman at Ohio University wrote this tool.

"Wireshark" [Wireshark06] (formerly Ethereal), this free packet sniffer is much like "tcpdump"; however, it provides a user-friendly interface with sorting and filtering features (a command line version of the utility is "Tshark"). "Wireshark" supports capturing packets in both from live network and from a saved capture file. The capture file format is libpcap format like that in "tcpdump". It supports a various kinds of operating systems such as Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Mac OS X, other Unix-like systems, and Windows. It can also assemble all the packets in a TCP conversation and show you the ASCII (or EBCDIC, or hex) data in that conversation. Packet capturing is performed with the pcap library. The need of promiscuous mode (root permission) still remains.

Figure 2.7: Screen snapshot by Wireshark [http://www.wireshark.org/docs/wsug_html]

Most sniffer is for free and provide high performance; however, there are also commercial "sniffer" products which they offer more material and full support with more user-friendly interface and more media supported. As a result, the cost is quite low compared to other kinds of network monitoring tools, i.e. about $200 for "LANWatch". "LANWatch" by Sanstorm Enterprise offers the software sniffer with more analysis features and protocol supported such as NetWare, SNA, AppleTalk, VINES, ARP, and NetBIOS.

Due to the prevalent of mobile computers, the new target for most commercial "sniffer" is on wireless networks, since there are not many free "sniffer" applications for wireless networks. For example, although "Wireshark" offers a free sniffer for wired-network, it provides the product called "AirPcap". "AirPcap" is a USB 2.0 wireless capture adapter for Windows system that enables wireless capture with Wireshark. It supports WLAN 802.11b/g. With the external adapter, "AirPcap" can run up to 480Mbps (USP 2.0 bandwidth) with just $200. "OmniAnalysis" [OmniAnalysis06], "WildPackets" offers a complete platform to do a real-time network analysis. The protocol analyzer can support in both wired (EtherPeek) and wireless (AiroPeek) network. This products support Gigabit, 10/100, 802.11 wireless, VOIP, and WAN links diagnostics in real time.

2.3.2 Hardware sniffer (Sniffer)

Although there are a lot of software sniffer available in both freeware and commercial, the question might be asked if hardware sniffer is really needed. Basically, the software sniffer' performance mainly based on the operating system and hardware supported though memory can be added or CPU can be increased, perhaps there might be a bottleneck such as the disk I/O and memory bandwidth or the operating system call. Thus, the need for monitor and analyzer in enterprise network such as 10Gbps and ATM, hardware sniffer might be required. The hardware sniffer components such as network adapter, memory/disk bandwidth, and buffer management are optimized to do only network monitor and analysis jobs.

"Sniffer" [Sniffer06] by Network Associates, Inc. is an example of the hardware sniffer. It provides the visibility to multi-topology 10/100/1000 Ethernet, 10GbE, WAN, and ATM networks to identify, monitor, measure, and analysis of network problems. "Sniffer" supports real-time analysis, back-in-time analysis, and historical analysis. The logging storage can also be supported for up to four terabytes of storage. Web-based user interface feature allow the administrator do online monitoring remotely.

However, since the performance of personal computer and peripheral such as CPU, memory, and disk have been increasing, the software sniffer is more convenient and popular. From CAIDA, there are a few hardware sniffers. However, it seems that only "Sniffer" and "Protocol Analyzer & Exerciser for Advanced Switching Interconnect" by HP are available. "LinkView" and "Shomiti" have no longer access.

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3. Comparison of traffic flow information

From all three-traffic flow information by data acquisition techniques we categorized above, from [sFlow03] Table 3.1 shows the comparison of network flow information techniques. We added the sniffer technique in the table. RMON (Remote Monitoring) [RFC 2819, 2001] represents the use of SNMP since RMON is standard used in networking devices such as router, which allows the remote monitoring and management. The standard RMON supports the nine RMON groups of: Statistics, History, Alarms, Hosts, Host Top N, Traffic Matrix, Filters, Packet Capture, and Events. Traffic Matrix and Packet Capture can be used for network flow information.

In the table, Sniffer can be used to capture and analyze the traffic locally, so the information about BGP4 and networking device information cannot be retrieved, and it cannot use SNMP feature. For RMON, since the purpose of RMON is to fetch information from network devices and perhaps to remotely reconfigure the device, only the packet information beyond layer three is available. It does not do much on characterizing traffic patterns and applications. Compared NetFlow and sFlow, it seems that sFlow is much better than NetFlow; however, the documents and utility tools of sFlow are not widespread; there are just a few free tools for sFlow collector and other than that, there are all commercials. Together with NetFlow version 9 chosen to be IPFIX standard, we still see the difficulty for sFlow as a good competitor for NetFlow.

[sFlow03] also claims that to implement NetFlow feature, the networking device is better high performance that results in high cost; however, "fprobe" [fprobe06] and "Softflowd" [Softflowd06]is a small NetFlow probe, which it keeps listening on an interface using libpcap, aggregate the traffic and export NetFlow V5 datagram to a remote collector for processing. "nProbe" [nProbe06] provides the NetFlow probe supporting Gigabit network and simply runs on Unix, Windows, or MaxOS X. Like "fprobe", packet capture uses libpcap. The only limitation is that since the probe does not run on the router, the administrators have to provide AS information. However, "nProbe" provides the utility to extract AS information from Juniper routers. "nProbe" also offers the hardware version named "nBox" with a web configuration interface. Since it is Linux based system, the hardware cost is quite low.

Table 3.1: Comparison of network flow information techniques [sFlow03]
RMON (4 groups)
Packet CaptureYNYNP
Interface CountersYPPNY
Packet headersYNPNY
Input/Output interfaceYNNYY
Input/Output priorityYNNNY
Input/Output VLANYNNNY
Source subnet/prefixYNNYY
Destination subnet/prefixYNNYY
Next hopNNNYY
Destination ASNNNPY
Destination Peer ASNNNPY
Real-time data collectionYYYPY
Configuration without SNMPNNNYY
Configuration via SNMPNYYNY
N: Feature not supported, P: Feature partially supported, Y: Fully supported
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4. Summary

As the network keeps growing, the need of network monitoring and analysis tools have been increasing. The administrators' jobs are to not only monitor if there is a network failure and fix the network problem on time, but also avoid the network failure because of network overload or outside threat. The network traffic information is used to meet the administrators need. For example, network utilization and network traffic characteristics can detect security vulnerabilities. And, the type of application consuming bandwidth can be used for network planning.

In this paper, we categorized network traffic into three categories: network traffic from NetFlow-like devices, network traffic from SNMP, and local traffic from packet sniffers. Some popular free and commercial tools are described with their features and operating system compatibility detail. A comparison based on these categories has been made that uses each technique depending on what the administrators want. For example, SNMP is more suitable for remote management and configuration, but less information can be retrieved to do further network traffic analysis. A packet sniffer is a local tool where the device is attached. NetFlow-like information is very useful for further analysis, but the limitations remain, such as high cost implementation and privacy concerns.

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5. References

[Cisco, NetFlow06a] Cisco Systems, "Cisco CNS NetFlow Collection Engine". http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/netmgtsw/ps1964/index.html

[Cisco, NetFlow06b] Cisco Systems, "Cisco NetFlow site reference". http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6601/products_white_paper0900aecd80406232.shtml

[Wikipedia, NetFlow06] Wikipedia, "NetFlow," Free encyclopedia 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NetFlow

[sFlow03] sFlow, "Traffic Monitoring using sFlow", 2003. http://www.sflow.org/

[RFC3176, 2001] P. Phaal, S. Panchen, and N. McKee, "InMon Corporation's sFlow: A Method for Monitoring Traffic in Switched and Routed Networks", Request for Comments: 3176, September 2001. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3176.txt

[Wikipedia, sFlow06] Wikipedia, "sFlow", Free encyclopedia 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SFlow

[S. Romig et all., 2000] S. Romig, M. Fullmer, and R. Luman., "The OSU flowtools package and CISCO NetFlow logs", In Proceedings of the 14th Systems Administration Conf, LISA 2000. http://www.usenix.org/events/lisa00/full_papers/fullmer/fullmer_html/

[cflowd98] CAIDA, "cflowd: Traffic Flow Analysis Tool". http://www.caida.org/tools/measurement/cflowd/design/design-1.html

[flowd06] "Flowd" http://www.mindrot.org/projects/flowd/

[IETF charters (ipfix)06] IETF charters, "Internet Protocol Flow Information eXport", 2006. http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/ipfix-charter.html, http://tools.ietf.org/wg/ipfix/

[D. Plonka, 2000] D. Plonka, "Flowscan: A network traffic flow reporting and visualization tool", In USENIX LISA, December 2000. http://www.usenix.org/events/lisa00/full_papers/plonka/plonka_html/index.html

[PRTG06] "Paessler Router Traffic Grapher". http://www.paessler.com/

[S. Leinen, 2000] S. Leinen, "Fluxoscope - A System for Flow-based Accounting", Deliverable ID: CATI-SWI-IM-P-000-0.4, March 2000. http://www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/~cati/deliv/CATI-SWI-IM-P-000-0.4.pdf

[Cristian Estan et all., 2003] Cristian Estan, Stefan Savage, and George Varghese, "Automatically Inferring Patterns of Resource Consumption in Network Traffic". SIGCOMM 2003. http://www.cs.ucsd.edu/users/cestan/papers/p0403-estan.pdf

[R. Sabatino, 1998] R. Sabatino, "Traffic Accounting using NetFlow and Cflowd", Fourth International Symposium on Interworking, Ottawa, Canada, July 1998. http://archive.dante.net/pubs/dip/32/32.pdf

[Tobias Oetiker, 1998] Tobias Oetiker, "MRTG: The Multi Router Traffic Grapher", LISA 1998. http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/lisa98/full_papers/oetiker/oetiker.pdf

[Net::sFlow06] Elisa Jasinska, "Net::sFlow - decode sFlow datagrams". http://search.cpan.org/~elisa/Net-sFlow-0.05/sFlow.pm

[sFlow Toolkit06] InMon Cooperation, "sFlow Toolkit". http://www.inmon.com/technology/sflowTools.php

[pmacct06] "pmacct now integrates sFlow and NetFlow probes". http://www.pmacct.net/

[Lancope06] Lancope Network Behavior Analysis (NBA) and response http://www.lancope.com/

[Infosim StableNet06] Infosim StableNet Network Management made Easy http://www.infosim.net/

[InMon Traffic Sentinel06] "InMon Traffic Sentinel Complete network visibility and control". http://www.inmon.com/products/trafficsentinel.php

[Wikipedia RMON06] Wikipedia, "RMON", Free encyclopedia 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rmon

[RFC 2819, 2001] PS. Waldbusser, "Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base", Request for Comments: 2819, May 2000.http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/std/std59.txt

[DPS Telecom06] DPS Telecom http://www.dpstele.com/library/#tutorials

[snmpget05] "snmpget - communicates with a network entity using SNMP GET requests". http://net-snmp.sourceforge.net/docs/man/snmpget.html

[SNMPGet03] "CCSchmidt Software Network Monitoring Software and Utilities". http://software.ccschmidt.de/index.html

[Inftraf05] "CCSchmidt Software Network Monitoring Software and Utilities". http://software.ccschmidt.de/

[Cricket06] "Cricket: high performance, extremely flexible system for monitoring trends in time-series data". http://cricket.sourceforge.net/

[Sniffer06] Sniffer InfiniStream.http://www.networkgeneral.com/Products_details.aspx?PrdId=20046117180712

[OmniAnalysis06] OmniAnalysis. http://www.wildpackets.com/products/omni/overview

[tcpdump06] "tcpdump". http://www.tcpdump.org/

[WinPcap06] "WinPcap". http://www.winpcap.org/

[WinDump06] "WinDump". http://www.winpcap.org/windump/install/

[MNN06] "Microsoft Network Monitor". http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/netmon/netmon/network_monitor.asp

[nettl/ netfmt00] "HOW TO TAKE A NETWORK TRACE ON HP-UX". http://www.compute-aid.com/nettl.html

[snoop05] "snoop". http://docs.sun.com/app/docs/doc/816-5166/6mbb1kqh9?a=view

[tcpdump2ASCII04] "tcpdump2ASCII". http://www.Linux.org/apps/AppId_2072.html

[tcpshow05] "tcpshow: Network Security Tools". http://www.tcpshow.org/

[tcptrace04] "tcptrace". http://jarok.cs.ohiou.edu/software/tcptrace/tcptrace.html

[tcpstat04] "tcpstat". http://www.frenchfries.net/paul/tcpstat/

[Wireshark06] "Wireshark". http://www.wireshark.org/

[Softflowd06] "Softflowd". http://www.mindrot.org/softflowd.html

[fprobe06] "fprobe". http://sourceforge.net/projects/fprobe/

[nProbe06] "nProbe". http://www.ntop.org/nProbe.html

[Deri, L. and Suin, S. et all., 2000] Deri, L. and Suin, S., "Effective traffic measurement using ntop", Finsiel SpA, Italy, Communications Magazine, IEEE Volume: 38, Issue: 5, On page(s): 138-143, May 2000. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/337108.html

[V. Jacobson et all., 1993] V. Jacobson, C. Leres, and S. McCanne, "tcpdump dump traffic on a network", UNIX man page, 1993. http://www.tcpdump.org

[Pande, Bet all., 2005] Pande, B., Gupta, D., Sanghi, D., and Jain, S.K., "The network monitoring tool PickPacket," Information Technology and Applications, 2005. ICITA 2005. Third International Conference, Volume 2, Page(s):191 - 196 vol.2 4-7 July 2005.http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/687576.html

[Hong, J.W., 2004] Hong, J.W. "Internet traffic monitoring and analysis using NG-MON", POSTECH, Advanced Communication Technology, 2004. The 6th International Conference, Volume: 1, page(s): 100- 120, 2004. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1292840/

[Junejo, N., 2004] Junejo, N., Junejo, N.A., and Unar, M.A., "MENeT a monitoring and protocol analysis tool for LAN", Advances in Wired and Wireless Communication, page(s):63 - 66, 2004. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1302841/

[Ioannidis, S et all., 2002] Ioannidis, S., Anagnostakis, K.G., Ioannidis, J., and Keromytis, A.D., "xPF: packet filtering for low-cost network monitoring", Department of Computer and Information Science, Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA, USA, High Performance Switching and Routing, 2002. Merging Optical and IP Technologies, page(s): 116- 120, 2002. http://www1.cs.columbia.edu/~angelos/Papers/xpf.pdf

[Priyantha Pushpa Kumara and Gihan V Dias, 2002] Priyantha Pushpa Kumara and Gihan V Dias, "LEARNStat: A Network Traffic Monitoring Utility", INET2002. http://www.inet2002.org/CD-ROM/lu65rw2n/papers/p06.pdf

[Costas Courcoubetis and Vasilios A. Siris, 2002] Costas Courcoubetis and Vasilios A. Siris, "Procedures and Tools for Analysis of Network Traffic Measurements", 2002. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/courcoubetis02procedures.html

[Wu-chun Feng et all., 2001] Wu-chun Feng, Hay, J.R., and Gardner, M.K., "MAGNeT: monitor for application-generated network traffic", Computer and Computational Science Division, Los Alamos Nat. Lab., NM, Computer Communications and Networks, 2001. Proceedings. Tenth International Conference, page(s): 110-115, 2001. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/956227/

[Malgosa-Sanahuja, J et all., 2001] Malgosa-Sanahuja, J., Cano, M.D., Cerdan, F., and Garcia-Haro, J., "TAT: traffic analysis tool for the statistical study of IP networks", Department of Infomation Technology and Communication, Polytech. University of Cartagena; Communications, Computers and signal Processing, 2001. PACRIM. 2001 IEEE Pacific Rim Conference, Volume: 2, page(s): 579-582 vol.2, 2001. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/737234.html

[McGregor, T et all., 2000] McGregor, T., Braun, H.-W., and Brown, J., "The NLAMR network analysis infrastructure", Waikato University, Hamilton, Communications Magazine, IEEE Volume: 38, Issue: 5, page(s): 122-128, May 2000. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/841836/

Tool Collections

[1] ESnet Network Monitoring Task Force (NMTF), "Network Monitoring Tools". http://www.slac.stanford.edu/xorg/nmtf/, http://www.slac.stanford.edu/xorg/nmtf/nmtf-tools.html

[2] CAIDA, "CAIDA Measurement and Analysis Tools". http://www.caida.org/tools/measurement/, http://www.caida.org/tools/taxonomy/, http://www.caida.org/tools/taxonomy/workload.xml

[3] "Network traffic monitoring software". http://www.topology.org/comms/netmon.html

[4] SWITCH, The Swiss Education & Research Network, "Network Monitoring and Analysis : Flow-Based Accounting". http://www.switch.ch/tf-tant/floma/, http://www.switch.ch/tf-tant/floma/software.html

[5] "Network Monitoring/Management". http://www.cotse.com/tools/netman.htm

[6] "Network Traffic Monitoring". http://www.monitortools.com/traffic/ (http://www.monitortools.com/)

[7] Advanced Laboratory Workstation System, "Network and Network Monitoring Software". http://www.alw.nih.gov/Security/prog-network.html

[8] Comlab, "Tools for modeling the user-traffic". http://www.comlab.uni-rostock.de/research/tools.html

[9] "Traffic Monitoring Software". http://www.programurl.com/software/traffic-monitoring.htm

[10] "Traffic Monitor and Analyzer Tools".http://traffic-analyzer.qarchive.org/, http://traffic-monitor.qarchive.org/

[11] "Tucows.com". http://tucows.com/ (search for network traffic monitoring, network traffic analyzer)

[12] "Download.com". http://www.download.com/ (search for network traffic monitoring, network traffic analyzer)

Research Laboratories

[13] Bell Labs Internet Traffic Research. http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/ms/departments/sia/InternetTraffic/index.html

[14] Universita' degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'' (Italy), "Network Tools and Traffic Traces". http://www.grid.unina.it/Traffic/index.php

[15] LBNL's Network Research Group. http://ee.lbl.gov/

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6. List of Acronyms

HTMLHyperText Markup Language
WMIWindows Management Instrumentation
ATMAsynchronous Transfer Mode
GbpsGigabit per second
MbpsMegabit per second
NMTFNetwork Monitoring Task Force
RMONRemote Monitoring
SNMPSimple Network Management Protocol
NMP Network Monitoring Platforms
CAIDACooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis
LANLocal Area Network
WANWide Area Network
UDPUser Datagram Protocol
TCPTransport Control Protocol
SCTPStream Control Transmission Protocol
FTPFile Transfer Protocol
IPInternet Protocol
IPFIXInternet Protocol Flow Information eXport
ASAutonomous System
BGPBorder Gateway Protocol
MPLSMultiprotocol Label Switching
CPUCentral Processing Unit
RFCRequest for Comments
VLANVirtual Local Area Network
ICMPInternet Control Message Protocol
IPXInternetwork Packet Exchange
IETFInternet Engineering Task Force
MIBManagement Information Base
PDUProtocol Data Unit
NMTFNetwork Monitoring Task Force
RRDtoolRound Robin Database Tool
VOIPVoice Over Internet Protocol
GUIGraphic User Interface
PNGPortable Network Graphics
OIDObject identifier
EBCDICExtended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code
ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange
IOSInternetworking Operating System

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7. Appendix A: List of Network Traffic Monitoring and Analysis Tools

Table 7.1: Free NetFlow utility tools
flow2rrdN/AA "Flow-Tools" toolkit for storing NetFlow data in an Round-Robin-Database
NetFlow2MySQL, NetFlow2XMLLinux, FreeBSDNetFlow2MySQL is software to store contents of NetFlow packets into MySQL databases. NetFlow2XML is software to convert NetFlow packets into XML format.
PanoptisUnix-likedUses NetFlow accounting data to detect (Distributed) Denial of Service attacks
SiLKLinux, Solaris, OpenBSD, Mac OS XA collection of NetFlow tools (by CERT/NetSA (Network Situational Awareness)) to assist the security analysis in large networks
UDP SamplicatorN/AA redistribution NetFlow data stream to multiple receivers

The tables below are tools, the lists are made from [1] to [10] but only for network traffic monitoring and analysis purpose from [1] to [10]. All descriptions are from the references.

Please Click Here to go to Table 7.2 to 7.7
  • Table 7.2: Free network monitoring and analysis tools
  • Table 7.3: Free network utility tools
  • Table 7.4: Free network monitoring and analysis tools (protocol specific)
  • Table 7.5: Commercial NetFlow monitoring and analysis tools
  • Table 7.6: Commercial network monitoring and analysis tools
  • Table 7.7: Commercial network monitoring and analysis tools (protocol specific)
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