Health And Social Care Book References In Essay

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Examples of Harvard referencing

Examples of Harvard referencing

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Book:Examples of Harvard referencing
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Date:Sunday, 11 March 2018, 5:30 AM

Introduction to Harvard referencing

To find out how to do a correct Harvard reference for all the different types of information you are likely to use, please see the links in the left hand menu. 

Examples include how to do an in-text reference and an entry in the final reference list.

Authors: multiple, corporate, missing authors and those with multiple publications

Multiple authors of a work

Up to three authors - include all authors (with second and third author initials before surname).

In text example:

As Smith, Stewart and Cullen (2006) have argued...

Reference list example:

SMITH, F., R. STEWART and D. CULLEN, 2006.  Adoption now: law, regulations guidance and standards.  London: BAAF

More than three authors - always give the first author, with or without the others - use et al. if not giving the other names.

In text example:

Mares et al. (2002, p.105) proposed...

Reference list example:

MARES, P. et al., 2002. Health care in multiracial Britain. Cambridge: Health Education Council

Corporate authors

These can be a company/organisation/institution etc.

In text example:

Home Office (2001) has outlined...

Reference list example:

HOME OFFICE, 2001.  Policing a new century: a blueprint for reform.  Norwich: The Stationery Office

Missing authors (Anon.)

If a work has no author, ideally try and find a corporate author.  If you really can't find one, use Anon. (but consider the quality of the source to ensure you feel it is appropriate to include if no author is assigned to it).

In text example:

As evidenced by Anon. (2004)...

Reference list example:

ANON., 2004.  Social services year book 2004.  32nd ed.  Harlow: Pearson Education

Authors of multiple works

If an author has written more than one work in a year, add a,b,c, etc after the date to distinguish between them.

In text examples:

Smith (2007a, p.22) suggested… Further, Smith (2007b, p.3) explained…

Reference list examples:

SMITH, A., 2007a. How to cite references. Southampton: Solent Publishing

SMITH, A., 2007b. Avoiding plagiarism. Southampton: Solent Publishing

This system applies no matter what format the source material is in; so if an author published a book, a podcast and a journal article all in 2010, they would still be given as 2010a, 2010b and 2010c.

If an author has written more than one solo work in different years, list them in date order (oldest to newest).

Blogs and discussion lists

Blogs

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a blog is:

AUTHOR(S), Year. Title of blog entry. In: Blog title. Full date of blog entry [viewed date]. Available from: URL

In text example:

Bradley (2008) explained...

Note:

As web pages, blogs do not have page numbers.

Reference list example:

BRADLEY, P., 2008. Word of the day is 'exaflood'. In: Phil Bradley's weblog. 29 April 2008 [viewed 9 May 2008]. Available from: http://philbradley.typepad.com/phil_bradleys_weblog/

Electronic discussion lists

The format for creating a Harvard reference for an electronic discussion list is:

AUTHOR(S), Year. Subject of message. In: Discussion list. Full date of message [viewed date]. Available from: URL of archive or individual message or email address of list

In text example:

Jones (2008) stated...

Reference list example:

JONES, A., 2008. Citing standards. In: Lis-link. 16 June 2008 [viewed 20 June 2008]. Available from: http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/LIS-LINK.html


Books, book covers etc

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a book is:

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Edition (if not the 1st). Place of publication: Publisher

In text example:

Stevens (1996, p.2) pointed out that “referencing is a skill all students should develop”.

Note:

You should give a page number for a quotation or a shorter idea that has been taken from a specific page (or perhaps crossing two pages). If you are summarising a general theory across a book or a chapter, you would not give a page number in the text.

Reference list example:

STEVENS, M., 1996. How to be better at … giving presentations. London: Kogan Page

Later editions of a book

In text example:

Bell (2005, p.244) considered...

Reference list example:

BELL, J., 2005. Doing your research project: a guide for first time researchers in education, health and social science. 4th ed. Maidenhead: Open UP


How to reference a quote from the back cover

In text example:

“Referencing is a skill all students should develop” (Smith, 1993, outside back cover).

“Referencing is a skill all students should develop” (Smith, 1993, dust jacket of hardback version).  

CD Roms

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a CD-Rom is:

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title [type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher

In text example:

The Story of Glass CD-Rom (Victoria and Albert Museum and the Corning Museum of Glass, 1995) provides interactive information on…

Note:

You won't be able to give a page number for a CD-Rom.

Reference list example:

VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM AND THE CORNING MUSEUM OF GLASS, 1995. The story of glass [CD-Rom]. London: Reed Interactive


Command papers

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a Command Paper is:

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title (Command paper number). Place of publication: Publisher

In text example:

The Law Commission (2006, p.11) reported...

Reference list example:

LAW COMMISSION, 2006. Parliamentary costs bill: report on the consolidation of legislation relating to parliamentary costs (Cm 6846). Norwich: TSO

The author can be an organization, government department or institution. Enter the details as given on the publication.

Conference papers

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a conference paper is:

AUTHOR(S) OF PAPER, Year of publication. Title of paper. In: EDITOR(S). Title of conference including the date and location. Place of publication: Publisher, pages

In text example:

Hummel and Atkinson (2007, p.31) gave the proposal...

Reference list example:

HUMMEL, O. and C. ATKINSON, 2007. Supporting agile reuse through extreme harvesting. In: G. CONCAS et al., eds. Agile processes in software engineering and extreme programming: 8th international conference, XP 2007, Como, Italy, June 18-22, 2007, Proceedings. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp.28-37


Devised production

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a devised production is: 

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of producer/production company). Year of production. Title. Full name of director. dir. Name and location of theatre: Theatre company. First performance: date of first performance. 

In text example:

Burlinson's production (2013) showed that “Emily Wilding Davison......”. 

Reference list example:

Burlinson, K and Crarer, C. 2013. Emily Wilding Davison: the one who threw herself under the horse. Kath Burlinson. dir. Smallhythe Barn Theatre, Kent: Cambridge Devised Theatre. First performance: 4 June 2013.

Discography

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a discography is:

In text: name of the artist/band and the year of release in brackets.

In text example:

(The Who, 1982)...

Reference list: Write the same again, followed by the title of the album in italics followed by [CD] place of distribution (i.e. a town or city): Name of distributor.

Reference list example:

THE WHO, 1982. It's Hard [CD]. UK: Polydor

Dissertations and theses

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a thesis or dissertation is:

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Type of qualification, Academic institution

In text example:

Davis (2006, p.24) explained that...

Reference list example:

DAVIS, L., 2006. British travellers and the rediscovery of Sicily: 16th-19th century. PhD Thesis, Southampton Solent University


DVD/video and film

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a DVD, video or film is:

Title, Year [material designation]. Subsidiary originator (if applicable e.g. Director). Production details

Film reference

In text example:

This can be seen in Welles' version of Macbeth (1948).

Tip:

When referencing films or DVDs, you only need to give the film title and the year of production the first time you reference it. After the first mention, you can just use the film title.

Reference list example:

Macbeth, 1948 [film]. Directed by Orson WELLES. USA: Republic Pictures

DVD/Video reference

In text example:

The DVD Cross Cultural Communication Skills (2005) illustrates...

Reference list example:

Cross cultural communication skills, 2005 [DVD]. Gower

Emails

The format for creating a Harvard reference for an email is:

SENDER'S NAME (sender's email address), date. Subject of message. Email to RECIPIENT'S NAME (recipient's email address)

In text example:

Jones (2008) stated...

Note:

No page number is necessary when citing from an email.

Reference list example:

JONES, A., (ajones@hotmail.com), 4 May 2008. Writing essays. Email to D. BROWN (d.brown@hotmail.com)


Essay or chapter in an edited book

The format for creating a Harvard reference for an essay or chapter in an edited collection is:

AUTHOR(S) OF ESSAY, Year of publication. Title of essay. In: EDITOR(S) of book. Title of book. Edition (if not the 1st). Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers of essay

In text example:

Andrews (2002, p.98) put forward the idea that...

Reference list example:

ANDREWS, M., 2002. Using technology in your presentation. In: L.WHITE and E. DAVIDS, eds. Enhancing your presentation. London: Sage, pp.91-104

Tip:

Note that the actual page where the quotation comes from is given in-text, while the page numbers for the whole essay are given in the reference list.


FAME

The format for creating a Harvard reference from FAME is:

CONTENT PROVIDER, Year of report. Title of report.  Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: short version of URL for resource

In text example:

Top Shop had a good profit margin in 2014 (FAME 2015)...

Reference list example:

FAME, 2015. Company report: Top Shop(UK) Limited. Bureau van Dijk [viewed 27 July 2015]. Available from: https://fame2.bvdep.com

Hansard

A Harvard reference to Hansard should be constructed as follows:

House abbreviation Deb (Parliamentary Session) Volume number col. column number

In text example:

As mentioned... (HC Deb (2001-02) 391 col. 982) 

Reference list example:

HC Deb (2001-02) 391 col. 982

HL Deb (2005-06) 685 col. 767 

Abbreviations:

Use HL for House of Lords and HC for House of Commons.
Deb stands for Debate and col. stands for column.

Images

Artistic images

The format for creating a Harvard reference for an artistic image is:

ARTIST(S), Year. Title of work [material designation]. At: Location

In text example:

As can be seen in the painting Dancing lesson (Degas 1880).

Reference list example:

DEGAS, E., 1880. Dancing lesson [oil on canvas]. At: Williamstown, Massachusetts: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute (no.562)

Electronic images

The format for creating a Harvard reference for an electronic image is:

ORIGINATOR(S), Year. Title of image or a description [digital image] [viewed date]. Available from: URL Filename including extension

In text example:

In Iman and Bowie (Malafronte 1999), the photographer captured...

Reference list example:

MALAFRONTE, V., 1999. Iman and Bowie [digital image] [viewed 23 June 2005]. Available from: http://edina.ac.uk/eig/ jk8490-001.jpg


Interviews

The format for creating a Harvard reference for an interview is:

INTERVIEWEE., Year. Interview. In: Programme title. Channel. Date. Time

In text example:

Blair (1997) made the claim that…

Reference list example:

BLAIR, T., 1997. Interview. In: Six o'clock news. BBC1. 15 August. 18:00

Note:

Your own primary research does not need to be referenced - cite your interviewee in the text as a personal communication, with a referral, if appropriate, to the full interview transcript in an appendix.

Journal articles

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a journal article is:

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal, volume number(issue or part number), pages

In text example:

Wilson and Till (2008, p.60) discovered that...

Reference list examples:

WILSON, R.T. and B.D. TILL, 2008. Airport advertising effectiveness: an exploratory field study. Journal of advertising, 37(1), 59-72

If the journal does not have a volume and part number, use the publication date instead:

MESSMER, M., 2003. Public speaking success strategies. The national public accountant, Nov 2003, 26

Legal cases (UK)

The basic format for creating a Harvard reference for a UK case is:

Names of the parties [Year of publication] Volume number (if available) Abbreviated Reference for the Law Report Series Start page

Note:

The first time you refer to a case in your assignment, include the case reference in full. You can generally use the first party name for any subsequent references if it is clear to which case you are referring.

In text example:

...as documented in Central London Property Trust Ltd v High Trees House Ltd [1947] KB 130

and subsequently:

...also in Central London Property Trust Ltd .

UK case in a law report

If you wish to refer to specific pages within a judgment, then include these after the reference.

In text examples:

Pepper (Inspector of Texes) v Hart [1993] AC 593, 594

Pepper (Inspector of Texes) v Hart [1993] AC 593 at 594

Neutral citations

High Court and Court of Appeal cases from 2001 onwards have neutral citations. A neutral citation includes the year of the judgment, the Court abbreviation (e.g. UKHL=UK House of Lords, EWCA=England and Wales Court of Appeal) and the case number. This can be included before a law report citation, or where a case is otherwise unreported:

Reference list example:

R v Rezvi [2002] UKHL 1

If you wish to refer to specific paragraphs within a judgment, then include these after the reference as above.

Unreported cases

Some unreported cases can be found as transcripts or via the legal databases. A neutral citation should be given where possible. Cases prior to 2001 should include:

Names of the Parties. Court. Date of Judgment (Unreported)

Reference list example:

Hare v Pollard. Court of Appeal Civil Division. 16 June 1997 (Unreported)

Use of round or square brackets

Round brackets should be used instead of square where the date is not essential for locating the case - e.g. where a volume number is provided and the date referred to is the year of judgment (rather than publication date):

Reference list example:

Holdom v Kidd and Others (1986) 61 P&CR 456

Referring to a case you have read about in a textbook

It is generally best to look up legal cases and refer to a law report or official version. Law reports can be found online via the Westlaw and LexisLibrary databases. If, however, you only want to refer to a case that you have found in a legal textbook, you must treat this as a secondary reference.

In text example:

Smith v Jones [2001] EWCA 1425 (cited in Murphy 2007, p.4) implies that...

Reference list example:

Fully reference the textbook you have actually read (e.g. Murphy in this example).

Note:

Law students should be using the OSCOLA system to cite legal references (see below). 

Legal Cases (EU)

European Union Cases

 All European Union cases and the appropriate details needed to create a reference can be found on EurLex.


The first time that you cite a case, refer to it in full in your text as per the example below.  You can then use a shortened version such as the Party Names or Case number (provided it is clear which case you are referring to):

Case number Party Names [Year] Law report abbreviation Volume number – Start page 

Case C-286/88 Falciola v Comune di Pavia [1990] ECR 1-191 

 

European Court of Human Rights cases, which are not European Union cases, can be found via Hudoc.

Legislation (UK)

The name and date of the legislation should be included within the text of your assignment, with additional information in the reference list.

UK Acts (Statutes)

Title of legislation including year

In text example:

This is governed by the Environment Act1995.

Reference list examples:

Environment Act1995

Each Act has a chapter number which you can also include:

Environment Act1995, Ch 25

If you are referring to a particular part of an Act, then include the section (s. or ss.), schedule (sch.) or paragraph (para) reference:

Environment Act1995, Ch 25, ss.5-11

Environment Act1995, Ch 25, sch. 1, para 2

Statutory Instruments (Orders, Rules and Regulations)

Title and year of Statutory Instrument (number)

In text examples:

Cite the title, year and number of the SI (Statutory Instrument) in italics – after the first mention you can refer to them by title/year or SI number.

...as stated in the Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925).

SIs are divided into articles (art.), rules (r. or rr.) or regulations (reg or regs):

...with reference to the Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925) r.15(2).

Reference list examples:

Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925)

Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925) r.15(2)

Bills (proposals for legisation)

Short title (Parliamentary Session) Serial Number

In text example:

...as described in the Harbours Bill HL Bill (2002-03).

Reference list example:

The serial number changes every time the Bill is reprinted. Include [ ] for House of Commons Bill numbers:

Health and Safety at Work (Offences Bill) HC Bill (2002-03) [38]

Harbours Bill HL Bill (2002-03) 24

Note:

Law students should be using the OSCOLA system to cite legal references (see below).

Legislation (EU and International)

European Union legislation

All European Union legislation and the appropriate details needed to create a reference can be found on EurLex.


The basic formats for creating a Harvard reference for EU legislation, both in the text and in your reference list are below.  After the first mention in your text, you can usually use a shortened title provided it is clear to which legislation you are referring. 

Please note that the abbreviation EC/EU/EEC may vary depending on the date of publication.

 

Regulations

Institutional Origin (Institutional Treaty) Number/year Date it was passed Title

Council Regulation (EC) No. 2078/92 of 30 June 1992 on the agricultural production method

 

Commission Documents (Com Docs)

Title, COM (Last two digits of year) Serial number, draft or final.

Proposal for a Council Directive on uniform procedures for checks on the transport of dangerous goods, COM (93) 965, final.

 

Directives and Decisions

Institutional origin Form Year/Legislation Number/ Institutional Treaty Date passed Title

 Council Directive 92/83/EEC of 19 October 1992 on the harmonization of the structures of excise duties on alcoholic beverages

 

For additional European Union legal publications, include as a minimum Title Year.  

In your reference list, you can also include any additional information which clarifies the reference for reader - e.g. legal references or series numbers and additional dates.  

Consider including [viewed date]. Available from: so your reader can quickly identify the source.  

 

International legislation

United Nations Treaties:

All United Nations Treaties and the appropriate details needed to create a reference can be found via the UN Treaty Collection.

In your text, include the Treaty title Year signedin italics.  

In your reference list, provide full details:

Treaty titleYear signed. Volume number UNTS page number, entered into force full date.

Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning transplantation of organs and tissues of human origin 2002.  2466 UNTS 132, entered into force 1 May 2006

 

For other international treaties, include as a minimum Title Year.  

In your reference list, include any additional information which clarifies this legislation for the reader - e.g. legal reference or series numbers and additional dates.  Consider including [viewed date]. Available from: so your reader can quickly identify the source. 

Ilaw contains international maritime conventions which can be cited using the guidance above or referenced to the Ratification of Maritime Conventions publication.

  

Legislation from Foreign Countries

As a minimum, include the Title Year (country) in your text:

Resource Management Act  1991 (New Zealand) 

In your reference list, include any additional information which clarifies this legislation for the reader.  Consider including [viewed date] Available from: so your reader can quickly identify the source: 

Resource Management Act  1991 (New Zealand), reprinted as at 1 March 2017 [viewed 24 March 2017]. Available from: http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1991/0069/latest/DLM230265.html

 Information about legal materials from different countries can be located via WorldLII

Letters

It is generally accepted that personal communications such as letters do not need to be included in the final reference list. However, you can refer to them in an assignment and include the full details in your text.

Note:

You should get permission to refer to the communication before using it.

In text example:

As stated in a letter from D. White on 21st July 2007, it is...

Reference list example:

If you do wish to include full details in your reference list, you could follow this example:

NAME(S), Year. [Outline of topic discussed] (personal communication, date)

WHITE, D., 2007. [Letter on the history of education in Southampton] (personal communication, 21 July)

Magazine article

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a magazine article is:

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of magazine, date of publication, pages

In text example:

Whitfield (2008, p.35) stated...

Reference list example:

WHITFIELD, N., 2008. The evolution of broadband. Personal computer world, June 2008, 30-7

Maps

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a map is:

AUTHOR, Year of publication. Title of map, scale. Place of publication: Publisher

In text example:

On examination of the Ordnance Survey (2002) map of the Isle of Wight, it can be seen…

Reference list example:

ORDNANCE SURVEY, 2002. Hampshire and the Isle of Wight: for touring and local route planning, 1:100000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey

Market research report (Mintel)

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a market research report is:

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Report title including series and date if available. Edition (if not the first).  Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: short version of URL for resource

In text example:

Mintel (2008) found that...


Reference list examples:

MINTEL, 2008. Clothing retailing– UK – September 2008.  Mintel [viewed 26 January 2009]. Available from: http://www.mintel.com

Newspaper article

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a newspaper article is:

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of newspaper, date of publication, pages

In text example:

Foreman (2005, p.1) described...

Reference list example:

FOREMAN, J., 2005. Olympic cities brought to their knees by the games. Daily mail, 7 July, 1-2

OSIRIS

The format for creating a Harvard reference from OSIRIS is:

CONTENT PROVIDER, Year of report. Title of report. Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: short version of URL for resource

In text example:

Abercrombie & Fitch had an annual turnover of... (OSIRIS 2015)

Reference list example:

OSIRIS, 2015. Company report: Abercrombie & Fitch Co. Bureau van Dijk [viewed 27 July 2015]. Available from: https://osiris.bvdinfo.com

Podcasts

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a podcast is:

BROADCASTER (if available), Year of broadcast. Title of podcast [podcast]. Date of podcast [accessed date]. Available from: URL

In text example:

Riddoch (2008) described...

Note:

You cannot give a page number for an audio recording.

Reference list example:

RIDDOCH, L., 2008. Harnessing Scotland’s energy [podcast]. 29 December [accessed 9 February 2009]. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/audio/2008/dec/29/scotland-energy-lesley-riddoch

Presentations and lectures

You are advised to use academic sources for your work.  However, if you do wish to reference lecture notes you could follow the examples below.

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a lecture or presentation (e.g. PowerPoint) is:

LECTURER, Year.Title of lecture or PowerPoint.  Lecture delivered to [name of course, level #], date of lecture

In text example:

Brown (2014) outlined how to...

Reference list example:
BROWN, P., 2014.  The basics of civil engineering.  Lecture delivered to HNC Civil Engineering, Level 4, 10th October 2014

Production of an authored play

The format for creating a Harvard reference for the production of an authored play is:

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of author). Year of production. Title. Full name of director. dir. Name and location of theatre: Theatre company. First performance: date of first performance. 

In text reference example:

Thacker's direction of Pericles, Prince of Tyre (1989) shows that.....

Reference list example:

Shakespeare, W. 1989. Pericles, Prince of Tyre. David Thacker. dir. The Swan, Stratford-upon-Avon: Royal Shakespeare Company. First performance: 6 September 1989.

Published music

The format for creating a Harvard reference for published music is:

ORIGINATOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Subsidiary ORIGINATOR (e.g. editor). Place of publication: Publisher

In text example:

...as seen in the influence of folk music (Britten 1980).

Reference list example:

BRITTEN, B., 1980. Eight folk song arrangements, for high voice and harp. Osian ELLIS, ed. London: Faber Music


Radio programmes

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a radio programme is:

Programme title, Year of broadcast [radio]. Channel. Date. Time

However, if one particular person is clearly responsible for the content of the reference, they can be given as the creator:

CREATOR(S), Year of broadcast [radio].  Programme title. Channel. Date. Time

In text examples:

This issue has been discussed on the radio ... (Woman's hour, 2008).

This issue is highlighted by Smith (2008) in a radio broadcast...

Reference list examples:

Woman's hour, 2008 [radio]. BBC Radio 4. 4 June. 19:00

SMITH, A., 2008 [radio].  Woman's hour. BBC Radio 4. 4 June. 19:00

Secondary references

If you have not read an original source but have read about it in another source and want to discuss it, you must reference the source you have actually viewed.

If possible, try and locate the original source yourself so you can refer to it directly. If not, the format for creating a Harvard reference for secondary references is:

In text examples:

Shuell (cited in Biggs and Tang 2011, p.97) puts forward the idea that…

This idea has been outlined.... (Shuell cited in Biggs and Tang 2011, p.97)

Reference list examples:

You must fully reference the source you have actually read - Biggs and Tang in this example.

BIGGS, J. and C. TANG, 2007. Teaching for Quality Learning at University. 3rd ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press

Note:

'Cited' is another term for 'referenced' - when you refer to another's work, you are citing them.

Songs (singles/albums)

Harvard references for songs would generally follow this format:

ARTIST, Year.  Song title (if needed).  In: Album title (if needed) [format e.g. CD].  Catalogue number (if available).  Record label (if available)

However, there would be some variations on what is included in a reference depending on whether you are referencing a single or whole album, a self-released single etc.  The below examples should help you reference these formats.


Single from an album - include album details:

In text example:

The Levellers (1991) include this in...

Reference list example:

ARTIST, Year.  Song title.  In: Album title [format e.g. CD].  Catalogue number (if available).  Record label (if available)

LEVELLERS, 1991.  Far from home.  In: Levelling the land [CD].  WOLCDL 1022.  China Records

SOLENT BAND, 2015.  The joy of studying.  In: The Uni days [self-released single].  SSU2015.  Solent Records

Single only:

In text example:

This is shown by the Beatles (1968)...

Reference list example:

ARTIST, Year.  Song title [format e.g. CD].  Catalogue number (if available).  Record label (if available)

THE BEATLES, 1968.  Hey Jude [vinyl 7” single].  R 5722.  Apple Records

SOLENT BAND, 2015.  The joy of studying [self-released single].  SSU SR 2015.  Solent Records

Whole album:

In text reference:

... provides a good example (Levellers 1991).

Reference list example:

ARTIST, Year.  Album title [format e.g. vinyl].  Catalogue number (if available).  Record label (if available)

LEVELLERS, 1991.  Levelling the land [CD].  WOLCDL 1022.  China Records

Online releases & self-release:

In text reference:

... this is shown in the work of the Solent Band (2015)

Reference list examples:

ARTIST, Year.  Song title.  In: Album title (if available) [format e.g. online single].  Catalogue number (if available).  Record label (if available) [viewed date].  Available from: URL

Single from an album:

SOLENT BAND, 2015.  The joy of studying.  In: The Uni days [self-released single].  SSU2015.  Solent Records [viewed 15th December 2015].  Available from: www.solentrecords.ac.uk

Single only:

SOLENT BAND, 2015.  The joy of studying [self-released single].  SSU SR 2015.  Solent Records [viewed 15th December 2015].  Available from: www.solentrecords.ac.uk

Tip:

If you want to look up catalogue numbers, the Discogs website may be useful.

*Some of the examples above are made up purely to illustrate the reference format!

Sound recordings

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a sound recording is:

ORIGINATOR(S), Year of publication. Title of piece. In: Title of source. Medium. Production details, numeration. Distributor

In text example:

Gordon (1976) is an example of…

Note:

No page number can be given for a sound recording.

Reference list example:

GORDON, D., 1976. Settin' the pace. In: Long tall Dexter, the Savoy sessions. Stereo sound disk. New York: Savoy, SIL 221, side B, track 5. Distributed by Arista Records Inc.


Social Media

The format for creating a Harvard reference for social media is:

Author, year. Title of page. [Name of site]. Day/month of posted message. [viewed day month year]

Available from: URL 

Remember:
The URL is the main web address if the content is behind a password.


Reference list examples: 


JONES, S. (2009) Referencing Group. [Facebook] 5th May. Available from: www.facebook.com [Accessed 09/05/09]. 

SMITH-MAY, N, 2016. British woman can adopt girl found in box in Egypt, judge rules. [Twitter]. 29/11/2016 [viewed 29/11/2016]
Available from: https://twitter.com/guardian/status/803627951724068864 

LEARNING SKILLS AT SOLENT, 2015. Intended for secondary school teachers but some apps here which are still useful in further education. [Facebook status update]. 12th October. [viewed 29/11/2016]
Available from: https://www.facebook.com/succeedatsolent

Telephone calls

It is generally accepted that personal communications such as phone calls do not need to be included in the final reference list. However, you can refer to them in an assignment and include full details in your text.

Note:

You should get permission to refer to the communication before using it.

In text example:

J. Brown outlined this idea in a telephone call on 10th August 2008.

Reference list example:

If you do wish to include full details in your reference list, you could follow this example:

NAME(S), Year. [Outline of topic discussed] (personal communication, date)

BROWN, J., 2008. [Telephone conversation on study skills] (personal communication, 10 August)

Television programme

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a television programme is:

Programme title, Year [TV]. Channel. Date. Time

In text reference:

This event was reported on television the same day (News at Ten, 2008).

Reference list example:

News at ten, 2008 [TV]. ITV1. 16th June. 22:00

Translations

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a copy of a book that has been translated is:

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Edition (if not the 1st).  Translated from the [French/Spanish/Russian etc] by First Name SURNAME. Place of publication: Publisher

In text example: 

Benjamin (2008) pointed out that “mechanical reproduction...”.

Reference list example:

BENJAMIN, W, 2008. The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. Translated from the [German] by J.A. UNDERWOOD. London: Penguin.

Note:
You should give a page number for a quotation or a shorter idea that has been taken from a specific page (or perhaps crossing two pages). If you are summarising a general theory across a book or a chapter, you would not give a page number in the text.

Video games

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a video game is:

Originators, Year of first release. Title of game [video game]. Publisher

For a digital or online copy:

Originators, Year of first release. Title of game [video game]. Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: URL/location

In text reference:

The use of music is a fundamental component in video games, as is evident in Solent Video Creatives (2017).

Reference list example:

Solent Video Creatives, 2017.  Match time [video game].  SSU Arts
Solent Video Creatives, 2017.  Match time [video game].  SSU Arts [viewed 10th February 2018].  Available from: www.solentarts.com

Websites and YouTube

The format for creating a Harvard reference for a website or YouTube video is:

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication or last update. Title of page [viewed date]. Available from: URL

In text references:
In the video from Southampton Solent (2014), it is evident that...

Sudworth (2012) has described how...

Note:

No page number is given because this comes from an online source that doesn't include them.

Reference list examples:


SOUTHAMPTON SOLENT, 2014.  Southampton Solent University new build animation [viewed 28 July 2015].  Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQJDLiP-GyY

SUDWORTH, J., 2012. China's students take on tough Gaokao university entrance exam [viewed 8th June 2012]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-18349873

Websites with missing details

Some websites don't provide all the details you may need - include as much information as you can. If no author is given, use the provider of the website as the author (this may be the name of a University, a company, a newspaper, or just the website name).

In text reference:

This approach has been outlined by Deakin University (2010)...

Reference list example:

DEAKIN UNIVERSITY, 2010. The literature review [viewed 6 May 2008]. Available from: http://www.deakin.edu.au/library/findout/research/litrev.php

Often the date that the website was published is not available. You may find at the bottom of the page a note of when it was last updated – give this as the date.  If no date is provided then you should put n.d.


XpertHR

The format for creating a Harvard reference for material from XpertHR is:

CONTENT PROVIDER, Year created or updated. Title of document.  Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: short version of URL for resource

In text example:

This has been outlined by XpertHR (2015)...

Reference list example:

XPERTHR, 2015.  Fit for work service in place.  XpertHR [viewed 27 July 2015].  Available from: http://www.xperthr.co.uk

Contents

Books (including chapter in book)
Articles in printed form
Articles in electronic form
Reports (research reports, organizational reports etc.)
Official documents
Conference proceedings
Reference works (encyclopedias and dictionaries)
Web sites
Social media (blogs, Facebook, Twitter)
Audiovisual media (motion pictures, videos, podcasts, television series episodes, songs, records)
Patents
Standards
Unpublished and informally published manuscripts
Other (data sets, software, mobile applications (apps), PowerPoint slides, lecture notes, brochures)

Sources by the same author and same year are alphabetized by title. Se more here.

Books

Book

Format:
Author, A. A. (Publishing year). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Turk, J., Graham, P., & Verhulst, F. (2007). Child and adolescent psychiatry : A developmental approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

In-text citation:

1-5 authors:

  • Smith (2006) states that...
  • According to an earlier study (Smith, 2006) it is argued that...
  • In 2006 Smith published a study on...

When 6 or mor authors, only note the first author, followed by et al.:

See more on in-text citation here.

Book with a new edition

Format:
Author, A. A. (Publishing year). Title (edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Carr, I., & Kidner, R. (2003). Statutes and conventions on international trade law (4th ed.). London: Cavendish.

In-text citation:

  • According to an earlier study (Carr & Kidner, 2003) ...

See more on in-text citation here.

Bok with editors

Format:
Editor, A. A. (Ed./Eds.). (Publishing year). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ekström, M., Kroon, Å., & Nylund, M. (Eds.). (2006). News from the interview society. Göteborg: Nordicom.

In-text citation:

  • (Ekström, Kroon, & Nylund, 2006)

See more on in-text citation here.

Chapter in a book

Format:
Author, A. A. (Publishing year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor (Ed./Eds.), Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Davidsson, P. (2007). Method challenges and opportunities in the psychological study of entrepreneurship the case of China. In J. Baum, M. Frese, & R. Baron (Eds.), The psychology of entrepreneurship (pp. 287-323). Mahwah: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Law, M., Polatajko, H., Baptiste, S., & Townsend, E. (2002). Core concepts of occupational therapy. In E. Townsed (Ed.), Enabling occupation: An occupational therapy perspective (Rev. ed., pp. 29-56). Ottowa: Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists.

In-text citation:

  • (Davidsson, 2007)
  • (Law, Polatajko, Baptiste, & Townsend, 2002)
    Note: Write the author of the chapter, not the editor of the book. The point is that the reader should be able to trace the whole reference in the alphabetical reference list.

See more on in-text citation here.

Book with an organization as author

United Nations. (1967). Increasing the production and use of edible protein: feeding the expanding world population. New York: The Committee.

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Book or book chapter in electronic form (e-book)

State the name of the database or web site from where the book or book chapter  was retrieved. If it is a freely available book or book chapter, give the full web address. If publication year is not available, state n.d. (=no date) instead. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Delamont, S. (2003). Feminist sociology. London: Sage Publications. Retrieved from the database Ebrary.

Environment and Regional Trade Agreements. (2007). Retrieved from the database SourceOECD.

Mackay, C. (n.d.). Howling at the moon. Retrieved from http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=296

In-text citation:

  • (Delamont, 2003)
  • (Environment and Regional Trade Agreements, 2007)
  • (Mackay, n.d.)

See more on in-text citation here.

Chapter in e-book

Reference is constructed in the same way as chapter in a printed book (see above) but with source information added.

Mitchell, H.W. (1913). Alcoholism and the alcoholic psychoses. In W.A. White & S.E. Jelliffe (Eds.), The modern treatment of nervous and mental diseases (Vol. 1, pp. 287-330). Retrieved from PsycBooks.

In-text citation:

  • (Mitchel, 1913)
    Note: Write the author of the chapter, not the editor of the book. The point is that the reader should be able to trace the whole reference in the alphabetical reference list.

See more on in-text citation here.

Articles

Journal article

Format:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Publishing year). Article title. Journal name, volume (number),pages.

Bell, V. (2005). On the critique of secular ethics: An essay with Flannery O´Connor and Hannah Arendt. Theory, Culture & Society, 22(2), 1-27.

In-text citation:

Journal article, running page numbering

Some journals do not use issue numbers, only year, volume and so-called running page numbering. This means that the first issue in a new volume of the journal starts numbering the pages from page 1 and onwards and the following issues of the same volume continue from the last page number of each preceding issue:

Format:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Publishing year). Article title. Journal name, volume, pages.

Blitz, C. L., & Mechanic, D. (2006). Faciliatiors and barriers to employment among individuals with psychiatric disabilities: A job coach perspective. Work, 26, 407-419.

In-text citation:

  • (Blitz & Mechanic, 2006)

See more on in-text citation here.

Journal article, more than seven authors

If  an article has up to seven authors, they are all spelled out in the reference list. If an article has more than seven authors, the first six authors are spelled out, followed by ... and then the final author:

Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., ... Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229.

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Newspaper article

Format:
Author, A. A. (Publishing year, date). Article title. Newspaper name, pages.

With an author, page numbering by newspaper supplement

Stuart, C. (2007, December 23). A park where faith and faithless intersect. The New York Times, p. Culture2.

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

With no author, running page numbering

Critics right and left protest book removals. (2007, July 5). Daily News, p. 11.

In-text citation. Use a short title (or full title if it is short) enclosed in quotation marks:

  • ("Critics right", 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

Articles in electronic form

References to articles in electronic form are constructed as articles in printed form but with access information, such as DOI number or web address, added.

Article with DOI

Many articles found in databases are assigned a digital object identifier (DOI) which creates a unique and persistent identifier. The hyperlink is usually not active.

Wenberg, S., & Thomas, J.A. (2000). The role of vision in the rehabilitation of the musculoskeletal system: Part 1. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 4(4), 242-245. doi:10.1054/jbmt.2000.0189

In-text citation:

  • (Wenberg & Thomas, 2000)

See more on in-text citation here.

Article with no DOI

Give the exact URL if it is a freely accessible (open access) article. Give the URL to the journal homepage if you need a subscription to the journal in order to access the article. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Example (free access):
Wilhelm, J., Thacker, B., & Wilhelm, R. (2007). Creating Constructivist Physics for Introductory University Classes. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 11(2), 19-37. Hämtad från http://ejse.southwestern.edu/article/download/7793/5560

Example (restricted access):
Muntlin, Å., Gunningberg, L., & Carlsson, M. (2006). Patients´ perceptions of quality of care at an emergency department and identification of areas for quality improvement. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15(8), 1045-1056. Retrieved from http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0962-1067&site=1

In-text citation:

  • (Wilhelm, Thacker, & Wilhelm, 2007)
  • (Muntlin, Gunningberg, & Carlsson, 2006)

See more on in-text citation here.

Preprints (pre-published articles)

For references to articles published online before they have been published in print or assigned final year, volume and number, use the phrases "Advance online publication" and DOI or "Retrieved from" and other web address. If the year cannot be stated, use the term "in press" in parentheses instead of year. The hyperlink is usually not active:  

Von Ledebur, S. C. (2007). Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. Advance online publication. doi:10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.8500141

Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Retrieved from http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf

In-text citation:

  • (Von Lederbur, 2007)
  • (Briscoe, in press)

See more on in-text citation here.

Newspaper article

Be sure to give year, month and day. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Reports

Research reports are stated in the same ways as books but with the added possibility to also state any name and number of the report series. Name and number of the series are usually found on the front or back of the publication, or on the title page inside the report.

Research reports in printed form

Conway, S. & Forrester, R. (1999). Innovation and teamworking: Combining perspectives through a focus on team boundaries (Aston Business School Research paper series No. 99:5). Birmingham: Aston Buisness School Research Institute.

In-text citation:

  • (Conway & Forrester, 1999)

See more on in-text citation here.

Research reports in electronic form

It is not necessary to state place of publication when a link to the full text is available. However, you should state the publisher's (organization's) name as part of the retrieval information. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Kessy, S. S. A., & Urio, F. M. (2006). The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction in Tanzania (Research Report No. 06.3). Retrieved from Research on Poverty Alleviation: http://www.repoa.or.tz/documents_storage/Publications/Reports/06.3_Kessy_and_Urio.pdf

Organizational reports

If the report is published in the name of an organization (corporate author), the name of the organization is stated as author. Then, the organization name is not needed in the retrieval information:

American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/wpo/sexualization.html

In-text citation:

  • (Kessey & Urio, 2006)
  • (American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls, 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

Official documents

SOU and Ds, Parliamentary publications, Laws, constitutions

Since the APA style guide has an American perspective it is hard to find guiding rules for referring to Swedish legal and parliamentary material. However, below are some examples on how such references could be stated.

SOU and Ds

SOU and Ds are treated like a report with an organization as author if a committee or something similar is stated clearly. Should this be missing, the report is treated like a publication with no author.

Havsmiljökommisionen. (2003). Havet: Tid för en ny strategi: Betänkande. (Statens offentliga utredningar 2003:72). Stockholm: Fritze.

Från socialbidrag till arbete: betänkande av Utredningen från socialbidrag till arbete. (2007). (Statens offentliga utredningar 2007:2). Stockholm: Fritze.

Äldres arbetsutbud och möjligheter till sysselsättning: En kunskapsöversikt. (2007). (Ds departementsserien 2007:21). Stockholm: Finansdepartementet.

In-text citation:

  • (Havsmiljökommissionen, 2003)
  • ("Från socialbidrag till arbete", 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

Parliamentary publications

It is customary within the fields of law to use the established form of stating parliamentary publications:

Prop. 1999/2000:135. En förnyad lärarutbildning.

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Laws, constitutions

From certain aspects, citing and referencing to legal material differs from other types of publications. In these cases APA usesThe Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (18th ed.). (2005). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law Review Association.

Conference proceedings

Proceedings from conferences, meetings and symposia can be published in book or periodical form and are written in the same way as books, book chapters and articles.

Conference paper

A conference paper in a printed book (conference proceeding or anthology originating from a conference). The reference is structured in the same way as a chapter in a book:

Lambertz, G. (2004). "Honour killing" and their export to the west. In E. Modvar & P. Lødrup (Eds.), World Conference of the International Society of Family Law: Family life and human rights (pp. 417-426). Oslo: Gyldendal.

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Conference publication (published on a regularly basis)

A conference paper in a conference proceedings which is published on a regularly basis. The reference is structured in the same way as a journal article:

Williams, R.W., & Goldowitz, D. (1992). Structure of clonal and polyclonal cell arrays in chimeric mouse retina. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 89, 1184-1188.

In-text citation:

  • (Williams & Goldowitz, 1992)

See more on in-text citation here.

Conference paper in electronic form

The hyperlink is usually not active:

Kadav, A. & Swift, M. M. (2008). Live migration of direct-access devices. Paper presented at the First Workshop on I/O Virtualization, San Diego, CA. Retrieved from http://www.usenix.org/events/wiov08/tech/full_papers/kadav/kadav.pdf

A conference paper in electronic form from a conference proceedings which is published on a regularly basis. In this case the article has been assigned a DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 105, 12593-12598. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805417105

If the conference paper has been retrieved from a database which is not open for all you should not write the direct link to the document. The example below is from the database ERIC:

Kamii, C. (1995). Why is the use of a ruler so hard? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Columbus, OH. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ERIC No. ED389558)

In-text citation:

  • (Herculano-Houzel, Collins, Wong, Kaas, & Lent, 2008)

See more on in-text citation here.

Reference works (encyclopedias and dictionaries)

If an entry does not have an author, the title of the entry is placed in the author's place.

For web based reference publications, state the date of retrieval, since contents may be changed over time. Link to the homepage or start page of the reference publication.

Reference work

A reference book with clearly stated editor(s):

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

New editions and if the work consists of several volumes should be stated:

Taparia, N. (Ed.). (2000). Columbia encyclopedia (2nd ed., Vols. 1-45). Chicago: Columbia Press.

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Reference work entry (with author)

Treat these references as chapters in books (above). If an entry has one or several authors, they should be stated. Add web address if it is an online source. The following example is structured like a chapter in a book. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2010 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Reference work entry (with no author or editor)

If an entry has no author, state the entry word first. Add web address if it is an online source (see example above). The hyperlink is usually not active:

Behaviourism. (1986). In The new Encyclopædia Britannica (15th ed.).

If no date can be given, write n.d. (= no date) in parenthesis:

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic

In-text citation:

  • (Behaviourism, 1986)
  • (Heuristic, n.d.)

See more on in-text citation here.

Wikipedia

Entries in Wikipedia are usually of uncertain date, therefore use n.d. (= no date) in parenthesis and retrieval date. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Pancreas. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved December 27, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancreas

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Web sites

If there is an author to the web article or page, he/she should be stated as such. If there is no author stated but there is an organization behind the web site, the organization name should be given as author (corporate author). If no date is available on the web site, use n.d. (=no date) in parentheses instead of year. Since web site content might be edited from time to time, it is very important to state the retrieval date. The hyperlink is usually not active:

World Trade Organization. (2012). About the WTO - a statement by the Director-General. Retrieved January 3, 2012, from http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/wto_dg_stat_e.htm

Nicholson, J. (n.d.). APA writing style assistance and grammar pearls. Retrieved February 16, 2009, from http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~jnichols/APA-Style.htm

In-text citation:

  • (World Trade Organization, 2012)
  • (Nicholson, n.d.)

See more on in-text citation here.

Social media

Some of the examples below, like Facebook and Twitter, are not included in the latest APA style manual, but suggestions are given on how to construct them. Social media, which includes blogs, Facebook and Twitter posts, are usually not archived for posterity. With this last point in mind, it is a good idea to self-archive this kind of documents, in print or digitally, if you are using them as source material for a paper. Remember that the main point is to be clear and make your sources retrievable.

  • If a blog, Facebook or Twitter author uses her/his full name, this is treated as in ordinary references, i.e. last name followed by personal name initials.
  • If the author uses a nickname (screen name), or if it is a descriptive (concerning a particular interest, for instance) rather than personal name, this is used as it is spelled out instead.
  • Use the first sentence of the post or, if it is very long, a truncated version of it.
  • Title of posts should not be in italics.
  • State document type in square brackets.
  • Give the full link, which is obtained by clicking the date and time stamp beneath the post (on the same row as the like, comment and share options), or copying its link location.

Blog post and blog comment

Write the author name or author nickname, followed by year, month and day of entry. Also state document type in square brackets. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Rosenhouse, J. (2011, December 17). What is scientism? [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/evolutionblog/2011/12/17/what-is-scientism/

In a comment to the post above the author in this example uses a nickname:

Owlmirror. (2011, December 26). Re: What is scientism? [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/evolutionblog/2011/12/17/what-is-scientism/

In-text citation:

  • (Rosenhouse, 2011)
  • (Owlmirror, 2011)

See more on in-text citation here.

Facebook, fan page

The APA style manual does not give any guidance on how to construct Facebook references. In the meantime, before any guidelines are created by APA, here are some suggestions on how to construct such references, partly taken from the APA Style Blog.

Obama, B. (2011, December 31). President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama wish you a merry Christmas... [Facebook update] . Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/barackobama/posts/219004581513098

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Facebook, private page

Facebook pages that are private or for friends only cannot be retrieved by everyone and should therefore be treated like personal communication and only cited in the text of the document.

Construct Twitter posts in the same way as Facebook posts (see above). The hyperlink is usually not active:

ScienceNewsOrg. (2011, January 2). Help on schoolwork in the New Year: use the rich archives of science journalism found on Science News for Kids. http://ow.ly/8fISp [Twitter post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/#!/ScienceNewsOrg/status/153882443680714753

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Audiovisual media

Audiovisual media incorporates motion pictures, radio and television broadcasts, podcasts, static objects like maps, artwork, and photos.

Motion picture

Use descriptions of main entries (main contributors), such as producer and/or director.

Format:
Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.

Grazer, B. (Producer), & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [Motion picture]. USA: Universal Studios.

In-text citation:

  • (Grazer & Howard, 2001)

See more on in-text citation here.

Video

This includes, for example, instructional and educational videos. Use descriptions of main entry (main contributor), such as producer. A producer may be an organization. If a work is available from a web site, a link to this site should be given. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Format:
Producer (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Medium of recording: DVD, videocassette etc.]. Available from link.

American Psychological Association (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from http://www.apa.org/videos/

In-text citation:

  • (American Psychological Association, 2000)

See more on in-text citation here.

News reports

The title of the news report video is moved to author position, in italics, followed by description of medium ([Video file]) and, like newspaper articles, year and date. The reference ends with a link to the video:

Title of news report [Medium]. (Year and date). Retrieved from http://link name

The daring message hidden on Hong Kong's tallest skyscraper [Video file]. (2016, May 19). Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2016/05/18/travel/hong-kong-international-commerce-center-hidden-message/index.html

In-text citation includes title in abbreviated form and within quotation marks:

  • ("The daring message", 2016)

See more on in-text citation here.

Single episodes from a television series

Main entries are constructed in the same way as motion pictures (see above). Use descriptions like writer and director. The whole reference is constructed in the same way as a chapter in a book. Use appropriate description in square brackets.

Format:
Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Episode title [Television series episode]. In A. Producent (Executive producer), Name of television series. Location: Television or media company.

Example:
Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

In-text citation:

  • (Egan & Alexander, 2005)

See more on in-text citation here.

Podcast

State producer as main entry. Write year, month and day in square brackets. Give appropriate media description in square brackets, such as audio podcast or video podcast. Add link to website. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Format:
Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year, month and day). Title of podcast [Medium]. Retrieved from http:// ...

Example:
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradion.com/

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Music recording, single song

As main entry, state the name of the person or persons who have written the piece of music, and not the one who has recorded it. If some one else other than the originator has recorded it, this is stated in square brackets. If the recording year is not the same as the main entry year, this is stated last in parantheses. The whole reference is constructed in the same way as a chapter in a book.

Format:
Writer, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, LP, cassette, MP3 etc.]. Location: Label. (Year of recording if different from song copyright year)

Example:
Song writer and artist is the same person:
Lang, K. D. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.

Song writer and performing artist are not the same:
Jagger, M., & Richards, K. (1969). Gimme shelter [Recorded by av P. Smith]. On Twelve [CD]. New York, NY: Columbia. (2007)

In-text citation:

  • (Lang, 2008)
  • (Jagger & Richards, 1969)

See more on in-text citation here.

Music recording, whole album

In the latest edition of APA's style manual, this type of reference is not included. But according to APA's facebook pages, such a reference can be constructed in the following way:

Format:
Artist. (Copyright year). Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, LP, cassette, MP3 etc.]. Location: Label. (Year of recording if different from copyright year)

Example:
The following example is a CD issue of a record recorded earlier:
Pink Floyd. (1987). The wall [CD]. New York, NY: Sony/Columbia. (Original work published 1979)

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Unpublished and informally published manuscripts

This type consists of works in progress, submitted to publisher for publication or works that are finished but have not yet been submitted for publication. This category also includes works that have not been formally published but are available on personal or institutional web sites. Web address is stated when the document is retrieved from the Internet. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Format:
Author, A. A. (year). Title. Unpublished manuscript [alternatively "Manuscript submitted for publication" or "Manuscript in progress" etc.]. Retrieved from http:// ...

Example:
Limberg, L. (2008). Bibliotek och lärande: en het kombination. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from http://grupper.bf.dk/bibundervis/artikler/Bibliotek-och-laerande.doc

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Unpublished manuscript with university affiliation

It is a very good idea to state a university or organizational affiliation when this is stated in the document. Web address is given when the document is retrieved from the Internet.

Blackwell, E., & Conrod, P. J. (2003). A five-dimensional measure of drinking motives. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of British Colombia, Vancouver, Canada.

In-text citation:

  • (Blackwell & Conrod, 2003)

See more on in-text citation here.

Manuscript in progress or submitted for publication

If the year is not known, n.d. (= no date) is given in parenthesis instead.  Web address is given when the document is retrieved from the Internet.

Smith, J. (n.d.). Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Manuscript in progress.

Dahlqvist, J. (2007). The market newness of new ventures. Manuscript submitted for publication.

In-text citation:

  • (Smith, n.d.)
  • (Dahlqvist, 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

Patents

Write the inventors' names as entry in the reference list. Add the publication year (also issue date) of the patent, not the filing date. If you have found the patent in a database, the name of the database should be stated.

Format:
Inventor. (Publication year). Patent number. Retrieved from Database name.

Example:
Appleman, B. (2013). US20130091434 A1. Retrieved from Google Patents.

In-text citation:

Please note! According to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6. ed., p. 224), the in-text citing should state the patent number, not the entry (inventor's name):

See more on in-text citation here.

Standards

Write the name of the standardisation organization in its full form. The publisher is often the same as the standardisation organization.

Format: Standardisation Organization. (year). Number of standard: Title of standard. Place of publication: Publisher.

Examples:

International Organization for Standardization. (1992). ISO 9000: International standards for quality management. Genève, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.

British Standards Institute. (2002). BS EN ISO 11623: Transportable gas cylinders: periodic inspection and testing of composite gas cylinders. London: BSI.

In-text citation:

  • (International Organization for Standardization, 1992)

See more on in-text citation here.

Other

Data set

Write the data provider and year and italicize the title of the data set. Also state a suitable document type description in square brackets. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book]. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/

In-text citation:

  • (Pew Hispanic Center, 2004)

See more on in-text citation here.

Software

Please note: You do not have to write reference entries for standard software and programming languages, such as Microsoft Excel or Word, Java, Adobe Photoshop or SPSS. State description in square brackets. Also, state place and producer of software. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Miller, M. E. (1993). The interactive tester (Version 4.0) [Computer software]. Westminster, CA: Psytek Services.

If it is available on the web, state the URL instead of place and producer:

St. James, J., Schneider, W., & Eschman, A. (2003). PsychMate Student Guide (Version 2.0) [Software]. Available from Psychology Software Tools: http://www.pstnet.com/products/PsychMate/default.htm

In-text citation:

  • (Miller, 1993)
  • (St. James, Schneider, & Eschman, 2003)

See more on in-text citation here.

Mobile applications (apps)

Write the rightsholder, which stands for either an individual or corporate author of the software, followed by year, title of software, version number, description of form and from where you have got it. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Rightsholder, A. A. (year). Title of Software or Program (Version number) [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://xxx

Skyscape. (2013). Skyscape Medical Resources (Version 1.17.42) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com

Note: Apps on the Android platform would have an address like: https://play.google.com/store/apps

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

PowerPoint slide presentation

Write type of lecture presentation (PowerPoint slides or any other similar kind of presentation) in square brackets. Since contents may be edited, it is a good idea to state retrieval date. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Gunnarsson, D. (2011). Introduction to business creation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved December 2, 2011, from http://lgdata.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/docs/159/284847/Intro_Bus_creation_11.pps

In-text citation:

See more on in-text citation here.

Lecture notes

Lecture notes belong to the category personal communication and are not included in the reference list.

Brochure

Reference is constructed by stating an author or organization name and title together with a suitable publication type description in square brackets, such as Brochure or Fact sheet. If no year can be stated, n.d. (=no date) is used instead of year. Write the web address if the publication can be found online. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Organization name or author name. (publishing year). Title [Brochure].

Jönköping University Library. (2011). The university library: Getting started! [Brochure].

Jönköping International Business School. (n.d.). International at heart, entrepreneurial in mind [Brochure].

California Board of Psychology. (2005). For your peace of mind: A consumer guide to psychological services [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.psychboard.ca.gov/pubs/consumer-brochure.pdf

In-text citation:

  • (Jönköping University Library, 2011)
  • (Jönköping International Business School, n.d.)
  • (California Board of Psychology, 2005)

See more on in-text citation here.

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